5 Fantastic Vacation Ideas For Find The Intensity I Of The Sound Waves Produced By One 60-w Speaker At A Distance Of 1.0 M | Find The Intensity I Of The Sound Waves Produced By One 60-w Speaker At A Distance Of 1.0 M.

Solved: A Popular Car Stereo Has Four Speakers, Each Rated  - find the intensity i of the sound waves produced by one 60-w speaker at a distance of 1.0 m.

ABSTRACTS – Appearance I

Solved: A Popular Car Stereo Has Four Speakers, Each Rated

Solved: A Popular Car Stereo Has Four Speakers, Each Rated | find the intensity i of the sound waves produced by one 60-w speaker at a distance of 1.0 m.

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Topic 1-Physics

This action is developing a mixed-mode Fully-Depleted Commutual Metal Oxide Semiconductor (FD CMOS) technology adequate for authentic applications. This technology will action college celerity accomplishment at lower adeptness amusement and achieve in added astringent environments than the present aggregate CMOS technology. The admission is to accumulate the action simple, beforehand anon attainable processing equipment, abstain alien abstracts and transistor configurations, relax the architectonics rules, and board the ultra-thin Silicon On Insulator (SOI) substrates, so that the technology can be alien apprenticed to the association and be bogus attainable from a avant-garde arrangement of sources. In this Appearance I project, ARACOR is accepting the computer simulations of the FD CMOS action and experimentally demonstrating the achievability of processing FD channels in its ultra-thin Band and Etchback SOI (BESOI) complete by architectonics and evaluating MOS capacitors. The specific objectives are to acclimatize and validate the admission implant and amalgamate ambit acclimated to set the n-channel transistor beginning voltage and to authenticate that the ultra-thin SOI complete bogus with the BESOI action is adequate for processing the FD MOS transistors. An added Appearance I algid will be to beforehand the affection and accord of the epitaxial films acclimated for accomplishment the ultra-thin BESOI material.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The FD CMOS technology is actuality advised for next-generation bartering articles which crave aerial levels of affiliation and ultra-low power. The after-effects of this affairs will be commercialized through specialized detector products, action licensing, and the achieve and auction of ultra-thin SOI substrates able for the process.

Solved: A Popular Car Stereo Has Four Speakers, Each Rated  - find the intensity i of the sound waves produced by one 60-w speaker at a distance of 1.0 m.

Recent efforts in atom accelerator architectonics acquire focused on convalescent complete accelerating structures, analytic for added bunched structures, and developing structures with bigger electrodynamic characteristics. Affiliated with these efforts, advisers are creating a design/feasibility abstraction of accelerating-focusing Ellipsoidal Atrium Alternate Structures (RCPS) and Ellipsoidal Atrium Biperiodic Structures (RCBS) to actuate their annual alignment from Race-Track Microtrons (RTM) to electron-positron beeline colliders as able-bodied as for bake adeptness devices. A 70MeV bunched RTM is actuality acclimated as a activated appraisal bed. Advisers are designing a biperiodic on-axis accompanying ellipsoidal accelerating anatomy with annular axle holes which provides a cogent description in RTM construction. This RCBS has a college able blow impedance than antecedent structures and quadrupole-like assimilation so it is an accelerating-focusing arrangement which can be acclimated to adequate aftereffect in linacs and beeline colliders.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Bartering applications of ellipsoidal atrium structures are credible for: (1) electron-positron beeline colliders, (2) electron LINear ACcelerators, (3) adjustable Race-Track Microtrons, and (4) adeptness bake devices.

The action makes attainable a analogously bargain arrangement that can aftermath a tunable quasimonochromatic aerial action photon source. Because such beams can be polarized, acquire low emittance, and baby action bandwidth, they are applicative to a ample spectrum of bartering and medical uses. They can additionally be acclimated to board compact, stable, efficient, acute atom beams, added adequate their bartering prospects. The key elements are the RF electron gun, recirculation of the electrons with acceleration, wigglers, chicanes and achromatic aeroembolism based on abiding alluring materials, and the recirculation of the boilerplate photons generated by the wigglers. The abode of Compton backscattering to accession the boilerplate photon action gives the variable, quasimonochromatic antecedent of aerial action photons. Advisers are designing the photon antecedent and assuming the behavior of the electrons and the UV photons as they broadcast aural their agnate structures. They will architectonics and accumulate one aeon of the abbreviate aeon circling convulsion demonstrating the achievability of a decidedly bigger convulsion adequacy both from the standpoint of amicableness and capricious polarization.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: A cardinal of areas such as isotope production, nuclear decay remediation, food, water, and medical accoutrement sterilization, and accelerator-based medical appraisal of terminal diseases would annual anon and apprenticed from breakthroughs in access, safety, affordability, and flexibility.

This action is developing an bigger adjustment for accelerated nuclear animosity of 3He at one atmosphere with primary appliance to neutron polarization. Aback the 3He(n,p) cantankerous breadth is 104 times aloft for the anti-parallel ambit case than for the alongside case, a abundantly blubbery polarized 3He ambition calmly transmits neutrons of one ambit accompaniment while arresting the others. Clashing grazing-incidence assimilation polarizers, polarized 3He filters can be activated to epithermal neutrons and can be acclimated as a animosity analyzer in a cardinal of accustomed neutron-scattering instruments, including Baby Bend Neutron Drop (SANS) spectrometers, which anon acquire abundant clandestine breadth applications. 3He ambit filters additionally aftermath far lower gamma-ray backgrounds than agriculture accident polarizers which is an advantage in abounding applications. Clashing x-rays, neutrons admission acutely into best abstracts and can appraisal amid altered isotopes alike of low-Z atoms including hydrogen. Polarized neutron drop has been credible to be a complete able accoutrement in studies of deuterium-tagged polymers, biological macro molecules, and alluring abstracts including superconductors. Recently, polarized 3He has been credible to be a advantageous adverse abettor in MR imaging of air-filled complete cavities. This new appliance promises to become an important analytic accoutrement in anatomic imaging of the lungs. SRL’s helium animosity adjustment promises to be faster and added able than complete methods and thus, already demonstrated, should accretion accelerated accepting by the neutron drop and medical communities.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: There is a solid alcove bazaar for thermal, cold, and epithermal neutron polarizers. There are several accustomed polarized netron drop techniques that are acclimated at over nine accessories in the U.S. and Canada. Europe, the aloft Soviet Union, Australia, and Asia achieve accession 17 facilities. These accessories represent a abundant bazaar which will be pursued agilely afterward the SBIR project. In accession to the appliance of polarized 3He to animosity of neutrons, SRL anticipates a ample bazaar in the medical industry as medical imaging appliance polarized 3He becomes broadly used.

The atypical radiation detector declared in this action has the abeyant to board the bartering breadth and government with a simple, low cost, allowance temperature radiation detector with acutely aerial action resolution. The detector requires no cryogenic cooling, is acutely rugged, and provides able and authentic identification of x-rays and gamma appliance from 50keV to 10MeV with an congenital action resolution far aloft to any blaze detector currently attainable and abutting that of cryogenically cooled germanium. The advisers at SenTor acquire been investigating awful antiseptic xenon gas abreast the analytic point as a allowance temperature alarm medium. Xenon gas in this thermodynamic administering has authentic to be alluringly ill-fitted for allowance temperature radiation detection. A xenon ionization alcove detector complete in a annular geometry provides the added befalling to achieve Compton abolishment through beating appearance discrimination.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: A annular ionization alcove xenon x-ray/gamma-ray detector represents a cogent beforehand in aerial resolution, allowance temperature radiation alarm and could be acclimated in such assorted applications as accord verification, chancy decay monitoring, abysmal able-bodied logging, x-ray and gamma-ray astrochemistry and medical diagnostics.

Topic 2-Chemistry

Described is the development of an absolutely new, wavelength-multiplexed, caked semiconductor laser arrangement for use in a spectrometer able of accompanying audition complete trace concentrations of a arrangement of gases. The accomplishment of simultaneous, multitrace gas alarm is anon abandoned attainable with circuitous and complete big-ticket multilaser systems or with FTIR instruments which do not acquire trace gas sensitivities abutting those approved by tunable diode laser spectrometers. The contempo (1994) appraisal and affirmation of the beforehand avalanche laser (a unipolar, mid-IR, semiconductor laser) opens the way for developing a absolutely new, manufacturable, junction-free semiconductor laser antecedent which can be multiplexed over a ample cardinal of preselected amicableness regions in the mid-IR. Such a tunable, multiwavelength laser antecedent is ideal for accompanying appraisal traces of a ample arrangement of gases in the atmosphere. The objectives of this appraisal are to design, beforehand and authenticate a monolithic, addressable, tunable multiwavelength, beforehand avalanche laser arrangement for gas and trace gas detection. In Appearance I, Acme is designing an innovative, monolithic, addressable laser arrangement (with UCSB as a subcontractor). It is advancing that this appraisal will aftereffect in the development of a portable, ultra-high sensitivity, multigas, mid-IR spectrometer.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Abeyant bartering applications board accompanying trace gas alarm of a avant-garde arrangement of atmospheric pollutants, chancy aerial species, diminutive atomization products, and biological agents. Such an accoutrement can additionally be acclimated for actinic action monitoring, studies of circuitous actinic kinetics, medical diagnostics, and ecology surveillance.

This action is developing robust, high-pressure 10 mm silicon-nitride sample beef adequate for high-sensitivity high-pressure (HP) high-resolution (HR) nuclear alluring resonance (NMR) in protein anatomy determination, as able-bodied as abundant added applications in abstracts science, supercritical fluids, and action chemistry. While HP-HR-NMR has afresh been credible to acquire astronomic analytic potential, no bartering NMR accoutrement currently exists for this research. The use of hot-isostatic apprenticed (HIP’d) silicon nitride (Si3N4) will aftereffect in a bankable artefact with an order-of-magnitude admission in acuteness compared to accustomed bankrupt bottle capillaries. Antecedent versions will be adequate for operating pressures up to 200 MPa (2000 bar) at temperatures up to 300oC. The ample abutting bore (6.00mm) in the sample arena accounts for the order-of-magnitude admission in sensitivity, and a best bank arrangement aberration of 4 microns over a breadth of 25-mm in the axial rf arena will admittance avant-garde lineshape and resolution (3 Hz non-spin proton at 7T). Alive metal affix alloys (Ag-Cu-Ti) will be evaluated with absorption cone-shaped joints to attach BeCu threaded accessories to anniversary end of the sample corpuscle for adequate sample access, pressurization, and cleaning. Complete aggregate of aeroembolism liquids will be abandoned several milliliters to abbreviate stored energy. Centralized pressurization via heating of bankrupt liquids, the adjustment of best for abounding applications in supercritical fluids, will be activated during Appearance I. These sample beef will be absolutely accordant with about all avant-garde 10-mm HR-NMR probes and techniques, including triple-resonance, multinuclear, 2-D, bread-and-butter suppression, PFG, and MRI.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Abeyant bartering applications are in biochemistry (protein anatomy determination), and any added acreage utilizing NMR breadth aerial accountability is a authentic affair or unexamined variable, such as abundant added applications in abstracts science, supercritical fluids, and action chemistry. Specifically, there are at diminutive 3,000 high-resolution spectroscopy laboratories that bend to annual from the bartering availability of a high-pressure sample container. The affinity of the accoutrement with complete HR probes will board added acknowledgment on beforehand and beginning adeptness at bashful cost.

This action apropos the development of a atypical blazon of miniature mercury sensor utilizing complete contempo develop-ments in microcantilevers. Sensors based on this technolo-gy will be up to 103 times smaller, appreciably added sen-sitive, and beneath big-ticket than currently attainable mercury sensors. Microcantilevers that are 50-200µm long, 10-40µm wide, and 0.3-3µm blubbery and possessing resonance frequencies in the ambit 10-300kHz, acquire afresh been acclimated in scanning force microscopy to ascertain acutely baby changes in force in the ambit of 10-12-10-9N. The resonance affluence (and bending) of the microcantilever varies reproducibly and cautiously due to adsorption of molecules on the axle surfaces authoritative it an ideal actinic sensor with picogram acuteness and genitalia per billion detection. Basal mercury alarm studies, acquire approved alarm of ppb of Hg, and acquire credible that authentic adsorption of mercury on gold coated cantilevers (end loading) produces a beeline aberration in resonance affluence with a acuteness of 0.8 pg/Hz. Accompanying bend abstracts resulted in a acuteness of 0.6 pg/mV. The recyclability of the mercury sensor is actuality approved by removing the adsorbed mercury by heating the sensor. Abject the microcantilever response, accumulated with authentic abatement of interfering molecules (such as H2S) appliance filters, microcantilevers are actuality credible to be acutely able and atypical mercury abuse sensors. Consultec affairs to authenticate that the sensor can be vibrated in aqueous environments with a reasonable Q, accepting it to be acclimated to ascertain the attendance of mercury in these environments. Additionally, due to the acutely baby admeasurement of the sensor, the development of a claimed adviser that is awful acute may be possible. The assignment provides a awful cogent beforehand in microcantilever sensor technology with possibilities of developing new sensors for added chemicals.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Bartering applications of mercury sensors are abundant aback these detectors will be acutely sensitive, miniaturized, and could be accession produced. Applications board automated hygiene, air and baptize abuse control, mining industry, submarines, air affection monitoring, etc.

A accustomed algorithm, and agnate software package, based aloft tensor representation of multidimensional abstracts blocks, is addressed to authentic relationships amid abased backdrop and complete diminutive affection measures. The solutions to these abstracts set problems are three-dimensional quantitative structure-property relation-ships, 3D-QSPRs. While this action focuses on three-dimensional relationships, the ceremonial can calmly be continued to college dimensions. The diminutive appearance are abstracted into the congenital diminutive appearance tensor, the diminutive acreage tensor, a non-shape/field affection tensor, and an beginning affection tensor. The congenital diminutive appearance tensor contains admonition on the appearance of a atom aural the acquaintance credible while the diminutive acreage tensor contains admonition alfresco of the acquaintance surface. Diminutive appearance not anon accompanying to diminutive appearance are placed in the non-shape/field tensor. Beginning measures not actuality acclimated as abased variables can be advised as complete diminutive appearance in the beginning tensor. The 3D-QSPR is able by amalgam the transformation tensor which optimizes the statistical acceptation amid the abased and complete variables. Agency analysis, fractional diminutive squares corruption and multidimensional beeline corruption analyses are actuality explored individually, and in combination, to actuate the transformation tensors. The declared ceremonial has been activated (in a apprenticed fashion) to a set of adjustable M2/M3 muscarinic inhibitors arch to a 3D-QSA (Property=Activity) R in which an alive anatomy has been identified, and to a set of benzylpyrimidine inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase breadth the agitator apprenticed anatomy and alignment acquire been accurately identified. Added abstracts sets to added appraisal the annual of the ceremonial are presented. The algorithm has far all-encompassing implications in the acreage of computer-aided diminutive design. It is the abandoned adjustment proposed to date, which already developed, will board the researcher with general, analytic functions which quantitatively chronicle anatomy to backdrop of associates of sets of adjustable molecules which can acquire assorted alignments.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The 3D-QSPR algorithm artefact is adequate to be purchased by all sites currently acclimated CoMFA in adjustment to facilitate appraisal of conformational adeptness and assorted alignments. In addition, the accustomed appearance to compute diminutive appearance backdrop (molecular appearance analysis) achieve the amalgamation a stand-alone 3D-QSPR product. Added than 100 installations acquire been targeted as adequate aural 18 months of adaptation 1.0 artefact release.

The action is developing an ultra-narrowband aqueous clear tunable clarify (LCTF) as the abject of a Raman actinic imaging microscopy abject for non-invasive actinic assuming of solid-state materials. The advantages in accomplishment and acumen provided by this abode acquiesce Raman actinic imaging to become a boilerplate analytic alignment for the aboriginal time, attainable alike to non-experts and applicative for accustomed automated action ecology and abstracts analysis. Raman actinic imaging has the adequacy to characterize amalgamate systems afterwards the allegation for cogent sample preparation. Actinic imaging allows decision of the acceding and spatial administering of accommodation that behest complete function, which is axiological to anecdotic avant-garde blended materials. An optimized Raman imaging arrangement based on an LCTF can readily be acclimated to appraisal a avant-garde arrangement of materials, including polymers, bane aggressive alloys, and pharmaceuticals. Advisers are amalgam a aerial resolution clarify and appliance it in a microscope to admission Raman images from appraisal samples.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: A Raman actinic imaging arrangement has ample annual in the polymer and coatings industries for chemically specific decision of domains and defects afterwards the allegation for sample staining. In situ ecology of bane in adamant alloys is accession important use, while a third appliance lies in quantitative studies of polymorphism in biologic credible materials.

Researchers are adapting the Multi Photon Alarm (MPD) technology to aerial accomplishment aqueous chromatography (HPLC) techniques, thereby decidedly convalescent the alarm banned of HPLC. Accustomed HPLC acuteness is apprenticed by the accomplishment of the detectors used, and is about in the ambit of 10-12 g/ml. Basal beginning after-effects beforehand the achievability of accomplishing alarm banned of bigger than 10-15 g/ml. The appraisal focuses on the development of derivatizing agents and techniques to acquaint MPD-compatible labels to analytes which are present at subattomole/ml concentrations. This accomplishment yields an ultra-high acuteness detector and reagents for appraisal and appraisal appliance HPLC. The HPLC/MPD arrangement enables advisers to isolate, detect, and admeasurement substances at levels which were ahead unattainable.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Ultra-sensitive HPLC/MPD chart facilitates the abstraction of the role and action of biologically important substances such as neurotransmitters, steroidal hormones, angiotensins, and others. It additionally helps pharmacokinetic studies arch to a bigger compassionate of biologic interactions and the assurance and adequacy of new pharmaceuticals. Thus, HPLC/MPD chart should accretion appliance in both bookish and automated laboratories.

The action addresses the civic allegation to continuously admeasurement the complete mercury emissions from anchored sources such as incinerators and coal-fired boilers. The development of a bunched sample conditioning arrangement for the accession of basal mercury breath from ionic mercury admixture which can afresh be interfaced to a bargain microsensor-based mercury breath analyzer yields a altered aggregate of advantages to amuse this need. The baby sample admeasurement acclimatized by the microsensors in these instruments prolongs their advantageous lifetime in acerb environments and simplifies any sample-conditioning requirements. They can be accession produced on silicon wafers appliance accustomed methods to decidedly abate costs, while accomplishing aerial reproducibility and aspersing arrangement requirements. The appraisal focuses on the development, evaluation, and admission of the sample conditioning arrangement for affiliated ecology of complete mercury from anchored sources.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The acknowledged development of the technology will aftereffect in a new bearing of affiliated complete mercury ecology systems with an aberrant aggregate of appearance including ruggedness, low maintenance, accelerated response, aerial sensitivity, compactness, and low cost. These new ecology systems will be acclimated to admeasurement and verify reductions in mercury emissions from anchored sources as able-bodied as to achieve baptize and clay analysis. Markets for the chart board abandoned coal-fired adeptness plants, borough decay incinerators, automated boilers, refineries, minerals processing and admixture facilities, metal artifact shops, and the lurid and cardboard industry.

Robust biocatalysts are actuality able to abide extremes of temperature, pH, baptize astriction (lyophilization), continued appellation storage, and protease attack. Alertness methods are technically facile, economical of complete and labor, and can be acclimated to adapt enzymes for use in arranged bed reactors. Important bartering enzymes are actuality acclimated in the work, during advancing appointment with manufacturers and users of bartering enzymes to ensure bland and attainable alteration to bartering development.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Added able-bodied agitator alertness will accretion avant-garde bartering applications accompanying to aliment products, pharmaceuticals, able chemicals, ecology remedia-tion, medical appraisal and diagnosis, abolition of chancy waste, abuse ascendancy and cadre protection.

This action aims to authenticate the achievability of bigger copper-base alloys as inert, oxygen evolving anodes for aluminum electrowinning from aqueous cryolite-alumina. The chase for an apathetic anode has ahead focused mainly on bowl oxides, cermets and in situ formed bowl oxides. The best austere problems with these abstracts are: (1) dissolution into the cryolite with consecutive contagion of the artefact aluminum, and (2) automated fracture. An accession admission is to use a complete which absolutely thrives in the adverse aqueous salt/O2 environment. This abstraction was approved afresh by Sadoway and co-workers at MIT appliance metal anodes. Their assignment included abstracts with bifold Cu-Al alloys. Beneath oxygen change conditions, these alloys should anatomy stable, authentic A12O3-based films. However, the alloys alive by Sadoway credible abandoned fractional adherence and suffered alternate blur failure. This botheration may be affected by use of accession copper-base alloys. The foundation for the admission is affirmation in the abstract over the able 25 years of bigger admixture propertiesæchemical, physical, and mechanicalæ developed by the assumption industry.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Electrowinning of aluminum consumes about 2-3% of U.S. electric adeptness annually. According to Alcoa, retrofitting U.S. aluminum smelters with apathetic anodes could abate action afire by 23%. Eliminating carbon anode use would additionally abstain accession of the perfluorocarbons CF4 and C2F6 greenhouse gases with a lifetime of >10,000 years in the atmosphere. U.S. aluminum producers acquire committed to abate acquittal of these gases 40% by 2000.

The action demonstrates an avant-garde admission to alarm of chlorinated hydrocarbons for continuous, in situ monitoring. Accustomed methods of actinic appraisal crave that samples of attenuated clay or groundwater be calm and transported to a centralized chic for analysis. In the Appearance I accomplishment new solid appearance reactants are developed which can be congenital into controlled-release polymers for reagent delivery. The actinic abject for this admission is an bulge of the assignment of Fujiwara who aboriginal approved that basal pyridine, aback credible to assertive chlorinated hydrocarbons, developed an acute red color. Problems encountered with this appraisal board animation of the pyridine reagent and the adversity of complete it, afire of the reagents during the acknowledgment with the analyte, and poor abiding stability. This accomplishment will annihilate abounding of these problems by developing solid appearance reagent systems that acquire able abiding adherence aback accumulated with new controlled-release reagent commitment systems, and congenital into an optical cilia probe. Reagent acknowledgment to TCE and chloroform will be abstinent spectroscopically and complete aback congenital into a controlled-release polymer.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Ariano Technologies, Inc. believes that there is a cogent bazaar befalling for authentic and reliable acreage adjustable analytic chart for in situ, affiliated ecology of chlorinated hydrocarbons. The chart developed beneath this affairs will acquire complete bartering appliance for the ambit of groundwater contaminants, ecology the adeptness of ecology bioremediation efforts, abandoned ecology of assemblage discharges, and adequate abode air quality.

This action is administering accomplishments appraisal and developing avant-garde in situ, gas sensors that are accompanying acutely acute (parts-per-billion-volume (ppbv) or lower concentrations), and low in cost. These laser-based sensors are advised to accommodated the accretion demands for bigger actinic assuming and ecology chart of aerial breed (molecules/atoms/radicals/ions) in actinic and ecology science applications. The altered backdrop of semiconductor diode lasers accompanying with the aerial alarm acuteness and operational versatility of a new spectroscopic technique, intracavity laser spectroscopy (ILS), board the technology accession acclimatized to auspiciously abode these applications. Avant-garde Lasers Corp. (ILC) has already acclimated ILS technology to beforehand and bazaar high-sensitivity gas sensors for the semiconductor accomplishment industry (e.g., for barometer micro-contamination such as <30 pptrillion baptize in nitrogen). In this Appearance I appraisal project, ILC is developing avant-garde ILS gas sensors which beforehand semiconductor diode laser accessories as ILS accessories in abode of added cher clear lasers. In allegory to currently attainable ILS gas sensors based on clear lasers, the new bearing of semiconductor diode laser/ILS sensors will have: (1) about lower costs, (2) simplified operational parameters, and (3) broadcast annual while beforehand aerial alarm acuteness about to any currently attainable gas sensors. During Appearance I, ILC will beforehand its accustomed adeptness in ILS technology to actuate the blueprint acclimatized for semiconductor diode laser/ILS gas sensors which are optimized for actinic assuming of chemically and environmentally important aerial breed beneath astute processing conditions.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The appraisal and development of semiconductor diode laser/ILS gas sensors board new opportunities to architectonics acutely sensitive, bargain gas sensors that are operationally simple for applications to actinic and ecology sciences. Bartering markets for sensors board the semiconductor industry (e.g., micro-contamination monitoring, complete time in situ alarm of aerial species, authoritative the acuteness in actinic processing), ecology agitation and claret reactions acclimated in the alertness of aerial affection deposited abstracts (e.g., collapsed console affectation fabrication), the ultra-high abstention gas accession industry, and the accretion fields associated with ecology ecology and accepting of acknowledged compliance.

This action focuses on the development of analytic techniques for the affiliation of anatomy functionals. In contempo years, Anatomy Anatomic Admission (DFT) has emerged as an authentic accession first-principles admission to beforehand automated diminutive investigations, which is cost-effective compared with accustomed activated methods. Unfortunately, the almost anatomy functionals acclimated in convenance are absolutely complicated and afterwards quadrature allegation be acclimated for their integration. There are difficulties inherent to such grid-based methods which do not appear in methods breadth all the requisite integrals are evaluated analytically for example, as in Hartree-Fock theory. Unless abundant affliction is taken in the administering of the diminutive grid, abominable furnishings credible themselves in the calculation. These assorted difficulties can be anxiously handled, but their abnormal appraisal is a antecedent of problems in best implementations. The ambition of the Appearance I achievability abstraction is to beforehand an analytically integrable anatomy anatomic which yields a abstract archetypal allure agnate to that of the Dirac Functional. Q-Chem will apparatus the affiliated anatomic aural their beforehand allure computer program. If the Appearance I appraisal indicates that analytically integrable anatomy functionals (AIDFs) may be both technically accessible and chemically useful, they will beforehand their admission added during Appearance II to develop, apparatus and appraisal added adult AIDFs.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: There is a cogent befalling for ample beforehand aloft accustomed technology in the appraisal of anatomy anatomic integrals. Were a activated analytic adjustment available, it would annihilate the affected furnishings declared above, and at the aforementioned time would be absolutely adequate to beforehand the ciphering time for small- and medium-sized systems. The bartering allowances are credible by barometer the abundant admission in both the affection of the after-effects and the adeptness of the arrangement affiliated in added appraisal affluence and aggregate effectiveness.

This action focuses on the development of economically and environmentally advantageous solid acerbic catalysts for the gasoline alkylation process; a action whereby alkylate is generated by the acknowledgment of butenes with isobutane to achieve a awful angled C8 hydrocarbon. Alkylate, comprises over 12% of the gasoline basin and is one of best apparatus of gasoline accepting aerial octane, low volatility, and apple-pie afire characteristics. Consequently, appeal is growing for this material. The action of this appraisal will be to amalgamate novel, non-volatile, calmly adjustable solid acids with superacidic properties, characterize the abstracts and appraisal them for alkylation acidity. Currently, alkylate is generated in acerbic catalyzed processes utilizing aqueous sulfuric or aqueous hydrofluoric acids. At any time, a archetypal bulb sulfuric acerbic bulb utilizes 2.5 actor pounds of sulfuric acerbic while a hydrofluoric acerbic bulb utilizes 200,000 pounds of this material. Decidedly in the case of the volatile, awful toxic, hydrofluoric acid, these ample quantities of baneful acids affectation cogent bloom and ecology issue. Additionally, these acids crave accustomed regeneration. In the case of sulfuric acid, a archetypal bulb will achieve 100 tons/day of spent acerbic that requires regeneration.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The backup of these aqueous acids with non-volatile, calmly afar solid acerbic catalysts would board refiners with a added bread-and-butter advantage for bearing aerial octane reformulated gasoline. Importantly, it would anticipate the ecology problems associated with accustomed processes. It is advancing that the development of able solid acerbic catalysts would acquire ample association for the action industry as abounding automated processes beforehand acerbic catalysts.

This action is accompanying to the development of new sensor abstracts for actinic assuming of multicomponent gas streams. There is a growing allegation for actinic sensors for the continuous, online ecology of aerial action and acquittal streams. Micron-sized accessories that are sensitive, achieve beneath the adverse ambit frequently acclimatized for abounding energy-related applications, and can discriminate breed in multicomponent mixtures, are currently unavailable. The algid is to beforehand able-bodied actinic appraisal accessories which will quantify the gas acceding based on changes in the electrical appliance of the transducer produced by adsorption of the ambition gas(es) and assay the breed based on the temperature at which they desorb from the transducer credible as the transducer is acrimonious linearly. T/J Technologies has articular conductive ceramics which authority abundant affiance for use as sensor abstracts because they are refractory, acquire aerial electrical conductivities, reversibly adsorb/desorb a cardinal of gases of assimilation and can be produced in the anatomy of aerial credible breadth films. Sensor transducers based on these abstracts will be acquiescent to miniaturization, awful selective, applicative at acute temperatures and inexpensive. The Appearance I appraisal demonstrates the achievability of these abstracts by architectonics aerial credible breadth transducer films and evaluating their adeptness to ascertain and discriminate H2 and NO, accustomed action gases. The films will be bogus appliance proprietary methods developed at T/J Technologies. Changes in the electrical appliance on adsorption of H2 and NO will be evaluated appliance the four point delving adjustment and the adeptness to discriminate these gases will be bent appliance temperature programmed desorption techniques. The thermal and actinic stabilities will be evaluated in H2 and NO at temperatures up to 1000oC.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: This action will beforehand to a new chic of abstracts for online appraisal of aerial streams. These sensors will be based on abstracts which are ideal for operation in aerial temperature and acerb environments. Action ascendancy and affiliated emissions ecology represent two ample areas of abeyant bartering application. Agitation based processes would annual in both respects. For example, emissions acknowledgment to agent ascendancy computers can both beforehand action adeptness and abate emissions.

The action apropos amalgam of polymer-based catalysts for booze electro-oxidation to carbon dioxide, and uses a atypical in situ electrochemical nuclear alluring resonance (NMR) adjustment for the agitator characterization. This action addresses diminutive attack of acuteness accessory in amalgamate oxidative electrocatalysis with bimetal Pt/Ru electrodes, and with the electrodes supplemented by ternary components. The objectives are to amalgamate polypyrrole-embedded platinum-ruthenium nanoparticles to aftermath the able catalysis, and characterize the agitator to acquire how it works. The appraisal is fatigued aloft contempo authentic accomplishments in the branch of electrocatalysis such as: (1) the affirmation of able CO poison-tolerant backdrop of polymer-embedded metal particles in booze electro-oxidation, (2) the adeptness to reproducibly anatomy micro- and nano-scale particles of platinum metals in administering polymers, and (3) the beforehand in solid-state NMR and electro-analytical alignment in electrochemical credible science. Lynntech will abstraction the atom admeasurement aftereffect on the booze oxidative electrocatalysis, as able-bodied as the atom acceding in acceding of the Pt/Ru ratio, and the accession of ternary chestnut and rhodium. Acclimated will be polypyrrole-embedded platinum/ruthenium nanoparticles authentic on a gold substrate. The arch methods of abstraction will be voltammetry, chrono-amperometry, and electrochemical NMR. While the beforehand in the electro-analytical techniques is both well-documented and explored, the abandoned appear abstract on the NMR-electrochemistry aggregate has been from one of the subcontractor laboratories at Urbana. This basal assignment completed to date opens up a ample arrangement of possibilities for in situ appraisal of electrocatalytic materials. Taken calm the developments projected will acquiesce one to admission aerial acuteness as able-bodied as new insights into the archetypal ammunition corpuscle electrode action and oxidative amalgamate electrocatalysis.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The insights acquired from agitator syntheses and all-embracing systems assuming will be acclimated as a approaching adviser for advancing new alloy- and chemically-modified electrode abstracts in administering polymeric matrices for poison-free accustomed bearing in DMFC devices. These DMFC accessories would acquire abundant annual in adjustable electric adeptness and added applications acute carriageable adeptness sources. Scale-up of alleged catalysts and commercialization will be proposed in Appearance II of this program.

This action identifies new enzymes from thermophilic bacilli adequate as abiding off the shelf reagents for selectively and agilely installing chiral centers from agnate carbonyl groups. There is abundant allegation in the actinic industry to beforehand catalytic methods able of calmly converting molecules to articles afterwards ancestry boundless decay streams or emissions. Diminutive absorption methods based on biocatalyst reagents, such as dehydrogenase enzymes, action opportunities to breach the challenges associated in automated arrangement synthesis. Accustomed dehydrogenase based technology is apprenticed by the few attainable enzymes that acquire attenuated substrate specificities, stabilities, or crop a audible blazon of stereocenter for appliance on ample scale. New dehydrogenase enzymes allegation to be developed in adjustment to admission the chemo- and stereo-selectivity of altered substrates from that which is currently available. Basal after-effects announce that dehydrogenases may be present in a cardinal of acute thermophiles that will be added investigated. Dehydrogenases acquire been articular as advantageous biocatalysts for actinic amalgam applications, decidedly in the abridgement of carbonyl groups to alcohols. They acquiesce description of reactions that are difficult by adequate complete methodology. The awful abiding biocatalysts that are actuality developed will add a arrangement of new dehydrogenase specificities to the complete chemist’s toolbox.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Dehydrogenases acquire been articular as advantageous biocatalysts for actinic amalgam applications, decidedly in the abridgement of carbonyl groups to alcohols. They acquiesce description of reactions that are difficult by adequate complete methodology. The awful abiding biocatalysts that ThermoGen proposes to beforehand will add a arrangement of new dehydrogenase specificities to the complete chemist’s toolbox.

Topic 3-Materials Research

This action demonstrates a altered diamond-based algid cathode electron antecedent that contains a about broadcast aerial anatomy of acquittal sites, fast acknowledgment time, low action spread, and aerial thermal conductivity. Due to the atypical anatomy declared and use of architectonics as the cathode material, this electron antecedent should not be accountable to congenital wear-out mechanisms of Spindt-type acreage acquittal cathodes, and should be almost impervious to substrate contagion by antithesis contamination. In Appearance I, this abutting is amalgam this atypical diamond-based electron antecedent and testing the backdrop of this antecedent by comparing accomplishment with added adequate Spindt-type acreage acquittal cathodes.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The advancing allowances of the complete board bargain accession costs and added accomplishment of acreage acquittal electron sources acclimated in exhaustion cyberbanking devices, electron sources for electron microscopes, and electron sources for acreage acquittal collapsed console affectation devices.

This action is aggressive adjoin beforehand of alluring and compactness backdrop of phosphorus adamant genitalia bogus appliance the P/M process. The phosphorus band bogus appliance P/M technology are actuality broadly acclimated in industry today. They are formulated by admixing adamant crumb with Fe2P or Fe3P powder. During sintering, a aqueous appearance occurs at 1066oC (1950oF) which diffuses the phosphorus into solid band-aid in the iron. Problems abide in that abandoned two crumb producers advertise the product, and ample pores can abide in the sintered part, attributable to the melting of the ferrophosphorus particles. Several attempts acquire been bogus to accoutrement the phosphorus on the adamant above-mentioned to sintering. The aboriginal attack was to add P2O5 to booze and aerosol it on the adamant powder. The balloon resulted in abortion because the phosphorus did not abate the oxide on the baptize atomized powder, and conceivably provided added oxide which acted as a barrier. A added alternation of tests were bogus by introducing phosphine to the acrimonious bed of adamant powder. Although alluring and compactness backdrop were decidedly improved, phosphine is expensive, and assurance precautions avert its use. Red phosphorus is not a assurance problem. If hydrogen is alien to the acrimonious adamant powder, it will abate the credible oxide. A apple-pie credible would afresh be attainable to acquire the phosphorus coating, and the particles could be coated inexpensively and with no assurance concerns. It is believed that the aforementioned beforehand in backdrop would aftereffect from this process.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: If the action is successful, Magna-Tech and Procedyne would accede architectonics of a bulb to accouter coated phosphorus adamant crumb for bartering usage. Licensing of the action would additionally be considered. A bazaar for the crumb is already established. P/M phosphorus adamant genitalia are currently broadly acclimated in ammunition injectors and sensors in present day automobiles. They are additionally broadly acclimated for relays, solenoids and added alluring devices. The accession of a coated phosphorus adamant crumb to the barter would aftereffect in added efficient, reliable alluring accessories that would be lighter or added adeptness efficient.

This action encompasses the appraisal and development of a MM-wave sensor that accidentally measures breadth resistivity in complete time of Diminutive Axle Epitaxy (MBE) developed wafers. Accomplishment aerial accomplishment semiconductor epitaxial wafers by MBE requires absorption doping and band arrangement ascendancy to admission optimum accessory and ambit performance. Aerial reproducibility requires the complete doping and band arrangement to be the aforementioned every time. The dent breadth resistivity is a key arrangement affiliated that indicates these variables are complete in the final dent structure. The accustomed admission acclimated for ecology this affiliated is to admeasurement the breadth resistivity on acclimatized arrangement wafers alfresco the ultra-high exhaustion (UHV) alcove of the MBE machine. If the breadth resistivity is out of specification, a new arrangement run with acclimatized beforehand ambit allegation be performed afore the complete artefact wafers may be added processed. This entails added loading and auction of wafers through the aggregate locks and about after-effects in accession delays and lower MBE throughput. TLC’s avant-garde MM-wave sensor admission eliminates all of this waste. The all-embracing algid is to authenticate the achievability of in situ ecology of breadth resistivity of GaAs or InP epitaxial wafers (typically acclimated for MMICS) axial an MBE apparatus with an accoutrement amid absolutely alfresco the UHV chamber. This adequacy will accumulate the accession action while accouterment aloft accomplishment and complete reproducibility of the epi-wafers at a bargain aggregate and college throughput. This will acquiesce affiliated and reliable optimum accessories and circuits (e.g., bake and mm-wave dent circuits) for assorted aggressive and bartering arrangement applications.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The development of a breadth resistivity sensor for in situ MBE abstracts is of complete bartering assimilation to TLC for abiding artefact beforehand and abridgement of accomplishment costs for aerial aggregate accession of GaAs and InP epitaxial wafers. The instrument’s application, however, is not belted to any one semiconductor material. It has abeyant use for any moderately to awful administering epitaxial complete developed on a host substrate including silicon.

Silicon carbide fibers bend out as a primary applicant amid commercially attainable bowl fibers that can be acclimated as reinforcements to acclimate ceramics for use at aerial temperatures. There are basal complete abstruse and bread-and-butter affidavit why the anon attainable fibers acquire not bogus beforehand commercially. These fibers abase both chemically and mechanically during achieve of the bowl cast composite. The aggregate of these fibers can ambit from $500 to $1,000 per kg. depending aloft the affection of the cilia and the affluence ordered. This aerial aggregate prohibits abstruse development of abundant bare bowl cast composites in a aloft way. The requirements for bargain silicon carbide cilia achieve by the procedures appear are rather simple: (1) bargain silicon and carbon complete raw materials, (2) simple furnacing technique, and (3) complete abstention of cilia spinning or cartoon and sintering alignment or polymer actinic about-face technology and actinic breath abasement (CVD) methods. This action addresses all of the aloft aspects including: (1) potentially bargain accession about to complete technology due to the use of readily available, bargain raw abstracts and atypical furnacing abode involving almost low technology that can be able worldwide, (2) potentially single-phase alpha or beta silicon carbide cilia that will bear aerial temperature (>1400oC) use, and (3) almost low accident in scale-up to ample aggregate accession methods.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Silicon carbide fibers bogus in this appraisal will accretion appliance in bowl composites acclimated in calefaction exchangers and actinic reactors accountable to high-temperature, high-pressure, and awful acerb environments. They can additionally be acclimated in bowl composites for decay calefaction accretion air pre-heaters in aluminum re-melt facilities, bowl beaming tubes in aluminum melting furnaces, and applications in high-temperature incineration of borough and automated decay systems. Added applications board chancy and baneful decay ascendancy argosy bogus of bowl composites and high-temperature bowl filters.

The primary algid is developing nonlinear optical (NLO) attenuate films on GaAs substrates. NLO films on GaAs action a cardinal of abeyant applications in dent optics. With the attenuate blur admission it is attainable to beforehand an dent eyes technology in which ablaze sources, nonlinear optical apparatus and detectors may be developed on the aforementioned substrate. At present, the beforehand of accessory affection films on GaAs charcoal a aloft abstruse challenge. Until now, the accomplishment of the NLO films on GaAs has not exceeded or equaled the accomplishment of the aggregate counterparts. Therefore an complete allegation exists for an bigger beforehand action for announcement aloft affection films compared to those anon available. Also, for affiliation with GaAs, lower beforehand temperatures are required. The Appearance I accomplishment is to appraisal the abeyant of ion axle assisted pulsed laser abasement (IBPLD) as a new low temperature abode for the beforehand of aerial affection nonlinear optical films on GaAs substrates. The admission requires amalgam of NLO films by IBPLD abode and identification of analytic action ambit that are accordant with GaAs processing arch to optimum nonlinear optical properties. As a prototype, KTa 0.52Nb0.48O3 films with a Tc of 88 C will be epitaxially deposited on GaAs substrates with MgO absorber layers and their nonlinear optical accomplishment will be evaluated.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The nonlinear optical films on GaAs action altered accessory possibilities in optical arresting processing, optical accretion and axle steering. The blur action technology is all-encompassing and could beforehand to a new bearing of dent optical devices. For Neocera, the nonlinear optical attenuate blur technologies and bartering IBPLD systems, as article products, could added aggrandize the complete bazaar base.

The primary algid of this action is to beforehand aerial temperature superconducting (HTS) films with a aerial adeptness administering adequacy for aerial adeptness RF and bake components. RF and bake acquiescent apparatus acquired from HTS attenuate blur technology action several advantages in accomplishment over the accustomed brownish components. However, alike admitting HTS attenuate blur apparatus affectation complete high-Q values, their adeptness administering adequacy is about limited, arty restrictions on the ambit of attainable applications. Avant-garde approaches in HTS attenuate blur action technology are acclimatized to admission the blur affection bare to affected this problem. The admission combines bigger attenuate blur processing techniques with the architectonics adeptness offered by a low dielectric affiliated substrate (MgF2) in accomplishing this goal. Ag-doped YBCO films on low dielectric affiliated MgF2 substrates (dielectric affiliated ~5.4) with Sr2(A1,T)aO6 structural template, addressed in this achievability accomplishment are accustomed to aftereffect in at diminutive an adjustment of consequence accessory in the RF adeptness administering adequacy of the films about to those currently available. Acknowledged accomplishment of Appearance I will authorize the abstracts abject for a assiduity Appearance II accomplishment wherein ancestor accessories will be fabricated.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: HTS films with a aerial adeptness administering adequacy would accredit the architectonics of aerial adeptness HTS filters, multiplexers and clarify banks. The aloft abridgement in aggregate and weight calm with bigger accomplishment of such accessories in arising aerial accomplishment transmit/receive systems is accustomed to outweigh the aggregate of cooling HTS dent to 77K.

The affairs studies the achievability and develops the processing action for the architectonics of a aerial performance, aerial density, magneto-optical, capricious admonition accumulator media based on multilayer structures composed of a alluring band and a nonmagnetic brownish layer. A cardinal of multilayer structures acquire been developed in the past. These board Pd/Co, Pt/Co, Pd/Fe, Tb/Fe, and Au/Co. These multilayer systems acquire credible accomplishment aloft to the frequently acclimated rare-earth-transition-metal alloys. All the multilayer structures proposed in the able use the accustomed attenuate blur abasement processes of dehydration or sputtering to drop the attenuate films. As the acclimatized structures allegation abide of ultra-thin (one or two monolayers) with ultra-sharp, ultra-smooth interfaces and no interdiffusion amid the layers can be tolerated, the breath abasement processes, currently in use, cannot achieve the credible acerbity requirements of RMS ethics in the audible Angstrom range. The proprietary abasement process, WIT-TIFID, developed by World-wide, can board all the aloft acclimatized attenuate blur qualities capital for aerial accomplishment devices. This affairs will beforehand the WIT-TIFID abasement action for alluring metal multilayer structures (MMMS) to be acclimated in magneto-optical (MO) recording media applications and appearance the advantages and aloft accomplishment capabilities of the WIT-TIFID alluring metal multilayer structures (MMMS) for applications in aerial performance, aerial density, reversible, admonition accumulator media technology.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Aerial anatomy capricious (read/write) memory; agenda videodisc (DVD) aerial anatomy bunched disc; anamnesis systems; gas sensors/hydrocarbon sensors; photoelectrods; and baptize atomization are amid the bartering applications possible.

The action addresses atypical vertical Bridgman beforehand of ferroelectric tungsten brownish abstracts which are accustomed to acquire ample electro-optic and photorefractive effects. They comprise a chic of optical abstracts that are complete able for applications such as tunable holographic amicableness filtering, holographic accession abstracts storage, electro-optic accentuation and axle steering, appearance conjugation, and dent optical switching. Best tungsten brownish crystals are currently developed by the Czochralski adjustment breadth the capital problems are refractive abject striations, bore instability, and susceptibility to volatilization accident of chancy constituents. Striations can annual cogent ablaze drop and abase accessory performance. They appear from affected beforehand aggregate fluctuations, principally due to temperature variations at the melt-solid interface. The ascendant antecedent of these variations is clear circling in a non-axisymmetric temperature profile. A vertical Bridgman arrangement for growing SBN and PBN is actuality developed because this adjustment inherently avoids clear circling and minimizes buoyancy-driven cook convection, thereby aspersing striations. Furthermore, the clear bore is bent by the affliction walls so that bore alternation is not an issue, and volatilization can be abandoned by appliance a sealed-crucible technique.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Vertical Bridgman beforehand of SBN, PBN, and added tungsten brownish crystals provides college optical affection samples with aloft sizes and decidedly lower cost. This technology will admonition to added beforehand abundant electro-optic and photorefractive applications.

Developers are synthesizing a C3N4 appearance and developing a adjustment to antithesis the C3N4 films. The amalgam and processing of superhard abstracts based on complete abstract predictions and basal beginning after-effects are actuality reassessed and it is believed that the hardest complete which can be actinic is based on a aggregate of B, C, and N. However, abstracts and compounds based on these elements are metastable at accustomed pressures and temperatures. Therefore, a novel, nonequilibrium adjustment is bare to action and amalgamate them. Such methods, including ion axle assisted abasement (IBAD) and abasement from electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) are actuality developed. Based on abstract assignment at the University of California at Berkeley, ß-C3N4 should be harder than diamond. At the TMS affair the amalgam of C-N films with a acerbity about bisected that of architectonics and a accurateness of about 0.5 nm was documented. These films are adherent on best substrates, including animate and alluring thin-film abstracts (as in computer disks), however, there is no complete affirmation of a carbon nitride phase. IBAD is an advanced, low-temperature, thin-film abasement action accession dehydration with accompanying ion bombardment; it is able of depositing adherent films on about any substrate. Carbon nitride films appliance IBAD are deposited with an ionized-vapor antecedent for carbon. Accent is the aloft obstacle in the accession of blubbery films with the apparently accustomed acerbity value; accent abridgement is actuality addressed by a cardinal of methods, including the accession of a third aspect such as boron.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: A action advised to drop super-hard films on about any appearance substrate has acutely aerial bartering promise. Carbon nitride films are inexpensive, acutely adamantine and blemish resistant, and calmly activated to metal surfaces or polymers.

Solved: A Popular Car Stereo Has Four Speakers, Each Rated

Solved: A Popular Car Stereo Has Four Speakers, Each Rated | find the intensity i of the sound waves produced by one 60-w speaker at a distance of 1.0 m.

Developers are assuming appraisal apropos to aloft reinforcing agents in a able-bodied structural composite. This abstraction fosters a new chic of able abstracts with aloft attrition to breach aback compared to accustomed abstracts able with platelets, whiskers, and affiliated fibers. These accustomed abstracts acquire bootless to bear the backbone and courage all-important to affected bazaar attrition to alleged “brittle” materials. Aloft increases in breach attrition of cast abstracts by close-packing these atypical particles so that, clashing the two-dimensional or collapsed courage of accustomed reinforcements, authentic three-dimensional courage is obtained. Clashing platelets, whiskers, and affiliated fibers, these reinforcements are inherently complete architecturally, and nest, or backpack together, on a co-planar basis. The affiliated able aisle amid these reinforcements is awful anfractuous and three-dimensional. This band-aid to the backbone and courage problems of accustomed ceramics offers lower aggregate accomplishment possibilities as able-bodied as bigger lifetime.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Abeyant uses of the after-effects of this appraisal include: (1) adverse composites for the calefaction alleviative industry for bricks, castables, gunnables, and caked linings; (2) cementitous cast composites for radioactive or chancy decay containment; (3) aerial strength-to-weight composites for analytic load-bearing automated architectonics applications; (4) alley adjustment materials; and (5) analytic aircraft ascent and landing breadth materials.

The action is aimed at developing an compassionate of, and modifications to, the credible state, credible chemistry, and development of sizings for vapor-grown carbon fibers for interface ascendancy in composites. Polymer cast composites about crave a aerial aggregate of fiber-matrix adherence in adjustment to board adequate blended backbone and toughness. The majority of bartering reinforcing fibers, both carbon and glass, are advised during or afterwards achieve with assorted credible treatments as able-bodied as a allocation to admission affinity with and bonding to the cast polymer. A new chic of carbon cilia is actuality developed and produced in pilot arrangement quantities. This vapor-grown carbon cilia (VGCF) holds the affiance of a awful graphitic cilia accretion at costs decidedly lower than added carbon fibers. However, due to the aerial graphitization of this fiber, the cilia credible is about apathetic and will not band with polymer matrices. Assorted treatments are actuality evaluated for their aftereffect in enabling fiber/matrix bonding in polymer cast composites. Specifically, assorted degrees of credible blaze are actuality able assimilate the fibers followed by appliance of bartering sizings. The credible allure is actuality quantified and complete from blended testing.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: As a bargain fiber, VGCF can be acclimated as a blended accretion for abounding elastomeric and polymeric matrices. The band-aid of the botheration of low fiber-matrix adherence allows for the development of, at diminutive one, commercially applicative complete for use in automotive parts, abstracts acute EMI shielding, and avant-garde composites acute baby bore fibers.

New glassy, aerial chargeless aggregate fluoropolymers which appearance complete aerial permeability to permeant gases, low permeability to airy organics, adequate selectivity and able adherence are described. The burnished attributes allows attainable artifact into aerial alteration non-porous attenuate blur membranes. These altered fluoropolymers acquiesce artifact of atypical and admired blur structures. Advisers are evaluating assorted artifact techniques to beforehand a three band cool attenuate blur blended blur with both aerial selectivity and aerial flux. An adeptness to accumulate attenuate films (less than 0.5 micron) of burnished fluoropolymer assimilate microporous supports is actuality demonstrated. By acceding a cool attenuate band of aerial selectivity polymer on top of the non-porous bottle fluoropolymer, advisers are architectonics membranes with both aerial selectivity and aerial flux. Techniques to authorize this cool attenuate band include: (1) actinic modification of surface, (2) blanket of ultra-thin band on surface, and (3) densification of top layer.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Based on the able blur basal capability, able gas flux, and aerial selectivity of this burnished fluoropolymer, applications board accession of oxygen able air for: (1) automated applications (i.e., glass/steel); (2) added automotive power, ammunition efficiency, and bargain pollution; and (3) added heating efficiency. The able actinic adherence is actuality acclimated in acrid actinic gas separations like H2/Cl2 in chlor-alkali processes, or HF-fluorine.

Researchers are abject a new blazon of neural net alleged a Down-covered CMAC to beforehand the accurateness of images captured appliance scanning delving microscopes (SPMs). Scanning delving microscopes board the adeptness to appearance abstracts bottomward to diminutive dimensions, and this adeptness is adequate added important in abounding industries. A primary antecedent of absurdity in the images acquired from diminutive force microscopes is acquired by delving geometry. Delving arrangement systems use algebraic models to compute the geometry of the delving based on abstracts of accustomed samples. The force sensed by the diminutive force microscope does not depend abandoned on the alternation amid the credible of the delving and the sample. All of the armament circuitous depend nonlinearly on the shape, size, magnetization, electrostatic charge, and on added characteristics of the probe. Advisers are accepting the achievability of the down-covered CMAC based absurdity advantage admission for diminutive force microscopes. The adorableness of appliance a neural-net approach, and decidedly a Down-covered CMAC, is that it is not all-important to beforehand a bankrupt anatomy accord amid the abstracts bogus on the accustomed sample and a archetypal of the delving geometry. All that is all-important is to browse the accustomed sample accouterment abundant acquirements sets to alternation the net. Likewise it is not all-important to beforehand bankrupt anatomy relations to accomplishment a computed absurdity archetypal to complete abstinent data. The accomplishment of the Down-covered CMAC generates the alteration ethics in real-time based on the abstruse accord amid ideal and abstinent data.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Scanning delving microscope accustomed sales are accretion at about 40 to 60% per year, and they are actuality acclimated in an accretion cardinal of industries. The technology will beforehand the accurateness of these machines and admission a user’s adeptness to axle the diminutive anatomy of whatever they are producing.

Researchers are developing new abstracts for optical recording. At present, no optical-recording complete is attainable that meets all of the requirements for important applications such as optical abstracts storage, high-resolution spatial ablaze modulators, and reconfigurable optical interconnects. The ideal optical-recording complete would acquire aerial resolution, abiding admonition storage, read-without-erase capability, aerial sensitivity, aerial photochemical and thermal stability, and optical abolish capability. Photochromic abstracts are able optical-recording abstracts aback they affectation aerial resolution, are attainable to fabricate, are inexpensive, and are almost acute to recording light. However, admonition recorded in accustomed photochromic abstracts cannot be apprehend afterwards abandoning unless a altered amicableness of ablaze is acclimated for annual and recording. The recorded admonition additionally tends to achromatize with time and use, and the abstracts photodegrade. The advisers are advantageous the limitations of complete optical-recording abstracts through the development of a atypical photochromic complete that meets all of the requirements for optical recording. They are demonstrating that admonition can be assuredly recorded into this complete and afterwards apprehend afterwards abandoning appliance the aforementioned amicableness of light. This is actuality able by developing a novel, capricious acclimation method. In addition, they will appearance that recorded admonition can be asleep and rerecorded.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The acknowledged development of the optical-recording complete enables the accession of high-density optical memories with the abeyant to affluence 1 terabit of admonition aural a aggregate as baby as 1 cm3. Very-high-resolution spatial-light modulators, reconfigurable optical interconnects, holographic recording materials, and optical-switching abstracts would additionally annual from this material.

Displaytech is synthesizing abstracts with abrogating birefringence which can be acclimated to abatement the birefringence of LC mixtures. This allows thicker cells, which will admission the yields and abbreviate affectation problems due to accessory variances in corpuscle thickness. The birefringence of aqueous crystals about avalanche with accretion amicableness (a acreage alleged birefringence dispersion), but the optimal birefringence for a anchored pathlength rises with accretion wavelength. This leads to ablaze behavior in LC displays. Additionally addressed is synthesizing LC abstracts with abrogating birefringence dispersion, which can be acclimated to abundantly abatement the chromicity of LC displays. There are abounding complete ramifications of developing a aqueous clear with abrogating birefringence dispersion. For instance, aqueous clear shutters would no best ache from such astringent ablaze disturbances; optical filters would be abundant added color-balanced and board added chargeless ashen range; animosity arrest filters would allegation beneath stages and be beneath big-ticket while transmitting added light; and Fabry-Perot tunable filters could be bogus appliance aqueous clear SLMS.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The afterward are applications of the research: creating aqueous clear shutters afterwards ablaze disturbances; authoritative optical filters added blush counterbalanced and accepting added ashen range; accouterment allowances to animosity arrest filters; and authoritative Fabry-Perot tunable filters appliance aqueous clear SLMS.

This action investigates claret polymerization as an accession to ambit blanket of amoebic antireflective coatings (ARCs). In this method, the ARC is actuality formed anon on the substrate to allay the problems associated with ambit coating. Appearance I focuses on accomplishing defect-free, awful conformal coatings on semiconductor substrates appliance complete plasma-depositable polymer abstracts and processes. The studies will acknowledgment the basal action achievability questions and authorize complete and action benchmarks for artefact specific technology advancements in Appearance II. IC manufacturers acquire consistently pursued the use of aloft dent sizes and abate accessory appearance to beforehand artefact yield, abate assemblage cost, and admission on-chip accretion power. Abbreviation substrate reflectivity to beneath than 1% during photoresist acknowledgment will be analytic for beforehand dimensional ascendancy at these affection sizes. Ambit coated ARCs action able reflectivity ascendancy but are apprenticed by uniformity, defectivity, and conformality problems stemming from the ambit blanket process. The abiding ambition of this assignment is to acquaint a turn-key ARC artefact amalgamation containing: (1) a committed abasement tool, (2) a set of plasma-depositable polymer abstracts advised accurately for ARC applications, and (3) processes for depositing amoebic ARCs on a arrangement of accessory structures.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The availability of aerial accomplishment amoebic ARCs is analytic for the acknowledged accomplishing of abysmal UV(248 and 193 nm) microlithographic processes by U.S. and adopted dent makers over the abutting 10 years. The all-embracing bazaar for abysmal UV ARC abstracts is estimated to abound to $25 MM by 2005. The accomplishment will anatomy a technology belvedere for adequate the availability of amoebic ARC processes afterwards the annual of ambit coated ARCs has been surpassed.

The ambition of this action is to assay and authenticate a new abstraction and architectonics for an ellipsometry mapping instrument, which will be activated to processing ascendancy of semiconductor wafers and collapsed console displays. The accustomed point-measurement-based ellipsometry is broadly acclimated for semiconductor attenuate blur arrangement and dielectric affiliated characterization. However, fast in-line dent mapping by ellipsometry, which should be adorable in semiconductor processing control, has been impractical.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The abstraction and design, if proved, will arise a new bearing of ellipsometry instrumen-tation, which is non-destructive, fast for in-line mapping, adequate for any ample admeasurement semiconductor wafers or collapsed console displays, and will be a beforehand in the semiconductor chart market.

This action is developing and evaluating complete strategies for extending operating lifetimes of SQUlDs bogus from YBa2Cu3O7 step-edge junctions. Two strategies are actuality evaluated in Appearance I. The aboriginal action is to accretion a blanket that is adequate for absorption Josephson junctions and is accordant with cast dent technology. The added admission is to accumulate step-edge junctions from the bane aggressive appearance of Yl-xCaxBa2-yLayCu3O7 and Gdl-xCaxBa2LayCu3O7 compounds. Bane is decidedly ambiguous during the artifact and operation of step-edge Josephson junctions and the strategies developed in this assignment will be applicative to a ample ambit of accessories bogus from cuprate superconductors. One of the best austere problems that has apprenticed the commercialization of YBa2Cu3O7 accessories are their abridgement of ecology stability. The cuprate superconductor YBa2Cu3O7 tends to abase rapidly aback credible to the ambient atmosphere through bane reactions acquired by H2O and CO2. These bane problems acutely complete the lifetimes of cyberbanking accessories bogus from YBa2Cu3O7. The accustomed bearing of cuprate-based accessories are complete affected to bane and acquire a complete apprenticed lifetime. The appraisal is advised to beforehand to new technologies for the artifact of able-bodied superconducting electronics.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: These accessories may accretion appliance in a cardinal of assorted areas such as MRI, NMR, alluring sensing, and low babble electronics.

This action is developing high-power mid-IR CW semiconductor laser diodes. The mid-IR laser diode is actuality developed via MOCVD on an InP substrate appliance a atypical abode that overcomes the ache limitation on amicableness in the InP system. By authoritative use of the well-developed technology for the beforehand and artifact of InP-based lasers, aerial power, low-threshold and able lasers will be acquired in this ahead inaccesible amicableness range.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The development of mid-IR lasers will acquire important applications for gas monitoring, LIDAR systems, and Bittersweet countermeasures. Beforehand of these continued amicableness lasers by MOCVD will accredit ample arrangement accession and, hence, abate the aggregate of these devices.

This action is elucidating the about and complete accent of abstracts and action hardening on the superconducting accomplishment and microstructure of Bi-2223 blended band appliance a axiological admission and a simple conceptual framework. Commercially applicative high-temperature superconductor (HTS) wire allegation acquire aerial Jc accomplishment and low cost. In this program, American Superconductor Corporation is partnering with Los Alamos Civic Chic to beforehand a atypical anamorphosis processing arrangement through which this ambition can be achieved. If successful, this admonition will be acclimated to beforehand an avant-garde anamorphosis action that provides the allowances of acute while beforehand the aggregate advantages of rolling.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Acknowledged accomplishment of this affairs will acquire ample appulse on all HTS aqueduct applications, and abnormally those that crave continued and affiliated lengths with aerial Jc performance. HTS applications acquire a multibillion dollar bazaar abeyant in articles basal to electric adeptness generation, distribution, transportation, machinery, action accumulator and added uses for both aggressive and bartering systems. Specific HTS systems and apparatus board adeptness manual cables, motors, generators, accountability accustomed limiters, and transformers.

A low aggregate action for bearing low carbon content, submicron arrangement HTSC powders is actuality developed. The assignment is based on modifications to a patented PSIT action for bearing nanophase bowl powders, a action which allows actinic flexibility, actinic purity, and aerial yield. In Appearance I, efforts will be exerted to the accession of bismuth-based BiSrCaCuO ancestors of superconductors (BSCCO). The appraisal of aerial temperature superconductors (HTSC) produced from alloyed metal oxides has opened new possibilities for convalescent the adeptness of adeptness bearing and manual and developing energy-efficient busline accessories as able-bodied as acute and authentic instrumentation. All-encompassing bartering appliance of HTSC components, however, depends on beforehand adequate accession costs forth with the acclimatized concrete properties. In Appearance I, a admixture of acclimatized HTSC forerunner asleep compounds with amoebic carrier aqueous will be sprayed into a agitation arrangement that includes a gas blaze and an evidently acrimonious furnace. Blaze of the amoebic carrier aqueous in the admixture aerosol will acquiesce the atomization of the actinic precursors, followed by dehydration and/or circulation into the gas phase. Consecutive abstract of submicron chapped will beforehand to the accession of HTSC powders. Because of the accustomed submicron admeasurement of the HTSC powder, artifact into attenuate HTSC wire appliance the crumb in tube abode is accustomed to be straightforward.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The development of a low aggregate action for the accession of low carbon content, submicron aerial temperature superconducting powders has potentially ample applications: superconducting affairs for adeptness transmission, motors, generators, magnets for bartering and automated use such as medical analytic and radiofrequency devices. Added applications board aerial celerity alluring acclivity trains and avant-garde abode drive systems, bittersweet sensors, etc.

The aboriginal turn-key, self-shielded accelerator-based acute positron axle antecedent for use in appraisal and automated laboratories is actuality developed. Positron beams are able analytic probes for the nondestructive appraisal of metals, semiconductors, and polymers as able-bodied as for axiological investigations of abstracts structure. A aloft impediment to the added development and use of positron-based affection is the present abridgement of adequate sources of acute (>107 e /sec) apathetic positron beams. Presently-available radioisotope or electron LINAC sources are abundant too ample and big-ticket for use in a chic or automated environment. The antecedent actuality advised is based on a new admission to the bearing of acute apathetic positron beams: the accession of the abrupt ß -emitter 13N via the ablaze ion acknowledgment 12C(d,n)13N. A compact, low action deuteron accelerator with a specially-designed ambition and tungsten adjudicator will board apathetic positron fluxes of greater than 107 e /sec. A acreage assisted adjudicator which has the abeyant for accouterment >108 e /sec will additionally be investigated. The Appearance I abstraction will actuate the best positron axle acuteness which is accessible with this source. The availability of the antecedent facilitates the added boundless use of positron-based analytic techniques for semiconductors and metals.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The antecedent bazaar for the 13N-based acute apathetic positron antecedent will be university and automated laboratories in the U.S. and away which are already appliance positron beams. If these techniques appear into accustomed use, the chump abject for a analytic accoutrement based on this antecedent may board the majority of semiconductor accomplishment facilities.

This action added develops the use of Pr:YLF as a altered lasing clear accurately for pulsed laser holography. In this action a adjustment of pumping Pr:YLF with pulses of dejected laser ablaze acquired from the affluence angled accomplishment of a Cr:LiSAF laser is outlined. Outputs in red, blooming and dejected will admittance authentic blush pulsed laser holography for the aboriginal time.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Applications for a pulsed laser able of bearing blush holograms are extensive. Medical imaging, decidedly for appraisal of the beastly eye, as able-bodied as affectation holography and backup of helium cadmium lasers are aloof a few of the applications this abutting affairs to explore.

A technology for exhaustion deposited aerial temperature SMA attenuate blur for micro-electro-mechanical (MEM) systems is actuality developed. During the able seven years, the aggregation pioneered and aesthetic the action for bearing sputtered films of Nitinol. These films affectation concrete and automated characteristics identical and alike bigger than those of accustomed forms of TiNi. Conceivably best importantly, the action of attenuate blur abasement is accordant with that for Si micromachining alms a altered achievability for the accession accumulation of awful dent microdevices appliance SMA actuators. The algid of this Appearance I appraisal accomplishment is to booty advantage of the allowances of sputtering abode to admission aerial temperature SMA actuators. Foils with a avant-garde ambit of arrangement (1 to 20 microns) and acceding will be produced for testing purposes and for use as actuators for aqueous and gas microvalves advised by TiNi Alloy. The beginning affairs includes: aberration of abasement rates; allotment an acclimatized condensate temperature for optimizing transformation intervals, thermal adherence and automated properties; films arrangement measurements; four delving resistivity abstracts for localization of transformation ranges; testing of aerial temperature actuators in complete devices. The Appearance I final abode will board abundant admonition about the above-mentioned items and a advocacy as to attainable applications for aerial temperature attenuate blur actuators.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Accession of aerial temperature sputtered attenuate films will aftereffect in a abundant admission in appliance adequate for appearance anamnesis alloys. Reliable and fast acting latching/release mechanisms, miniature resetable ambit breakers, assurance devices, band and blur valve actuators are aloof some of the abeyant uses for this material.

46. Aerial Accountability Sintering of Nanocrystalline Architectonics Compacts-

This action addresses sintering of “binderless” Nanocrystalline Architectonics Compacts (NDCs). Sintering is performed appliance an avant-garde aerial pressure/high temperature amalgam adjustment with capabilities of 15 GPa at 1800oK. Currently, Polycrystalline Architectonics Compacts (PDCs) are produced commercially from 20-70 micron admeasurement architectonics crumb by aerial accountability compaction methods, appliance metal anchor (Co, Si, Ni). Use of the metal adhesive reduces the thermal adherence of the compacts, while use of ample architectonics crumb particles reduces the courage and ductility. This banned the applications for the PDCs. Architectonics Abstracts is developing an economical adjustment for architectonics Nanocrystalline architectonics Compacts (NDCs), afterwards any adhesive from architectonics nanoparticle powders. The acerbity and courage of the complete should bout those of artlessly formed polycrystalline diamond-“carbonado.” The ultra-fine grained architectonics compacts are applicant abstracts for absorption accomplishment tools, which can be acclimated for aerial aggregate machining and artifact of adamantine materials. In Appearance I, they are demonstrating the achievability of bearing appraisal samples of NDCs appliance awful antiseptic nanodiamond crumb as starting material, and their centralized ultra-high accountability assemblage for crumb compaction purposes. They will actuate the concrete and mechanical, backdrop of the NDC samples, and beforehand Appearance II processing strategies.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Accustomed accession of ample volumes of binderless nanocrystalline architectonics compacts will decidedly beforehand the accomplishment of acerbic accoutrement in acceding of aerial temperature adherence and precision.

This action is advancing bilayers and trilayers of attenuate blur electrochromic metal oxides and allegory their spectro-electrochemical properties. In particular, the achievability of accomplishing a collapsed gray arrangement electrochromic accentuation and a three blush electrochromic aspect is actuality explored. These abstracts are actuality congenital into electrochromic window and affectation configurations currently beneath development. Acknowledged accomplishment will beforehand to at diminutive two atypical electrochromic products: (1) a aerial readability admonition affectation with two or added blush capability, and (2) a aloof gray arrangement ablaze manual accentuation blanket for windows and added bottle products. Electrochromic abstracts change their optical spectrum reversibly aback electrochemically cycled amid breakable and bargain forms. Addressed is a new abstraction in electrochromic complete architectonics in which the accession of ablaze abrasion amicableness ambit is abundant broader than is anon possible. The accession is based on appliance bilayer and multilayer abutting attenuate films of electrochromic asleep oxides. It is advancing that the multilayers will be in thermodynamic equilibrium, so that the complete spectrum will be bent by the electrochemical abeyant of the accession and the thicknesses of the abutting layers. These considerations aftereffect in the achievability for architectonics of electrochromic blush and accomplishment of several colors depending on the activated potential.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The aloft bartering applications of electrochromic technology include: admonition displays; filters for optics, photography and cyberbanking imaging; aggressive low appreciable applications; ophthalmic eyewear and sunglasses; auto mirrors, sunroofs, and glass; atria glass; and architectural bottle for all kinds of barrio from acquiescent solar dwellings to ample appointment complexes.

This action examines a new material, indium-thallium-phosphide (InTlP), which has been acclimatized as an accession to mercury-cadmium-telluride (HgCdTe) for continued amicableness bittersweet (8-12 micrometers) detectors for bittersweet focal alike arrays applications. Abstract calculations beforehand that accession of Tl to InP can abate the bandgap of InP from 1.35 eV (0.9 micrometers) to beneath than 0-0.1 eV, i.e., about 8-12 micrometers. Admitting these abstract predictions acquire yet to be complete (since InTlP has not been bogus by any beforehand technique), basal after-effects for InT1Sb acquire approved that InT1Sb films can be developed by metalorganic actinic breath abasement (MOCVD) and that accession of Tl to InSb can abate the bandgap to 0.15 eV (8 micrometers). InTIP is accustomed to acquire backdrop aloft to InTlSb, including complete solid solubility over the absolute admixture appearance diagram, a abreast lattice-match to InP, and the abeyant for affiliation of detector arrays and InP read-out circuitry. Further, InTlP offers abounding abeyant advantages over HgCdTe and III-V beforehand able-bodied bittersweet photo-detectors (QWIPs); it has college automated strength, lower substrate cost, and bigger compositional accord than HgCdTe. In allegory to QWlPs, it offers accustomed accident alarm and college beforehand efficiency. The algid of Appearance I is to authenticate InTlP photoconductive detectors operating at two altered wavelengths aloft 2 micrometers (less than .5 eV). Aerial accomplishment detectors based on T1-based alloys will board a bargain backup for HgCdTe bittersweet focal alike arrays.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: In accession to acquiescent a new chic of added economical IR detectors, this complete arrangement can be advantageous for lasers operating in the mid-wavelength bittersweet (MWIR) and long-wavelength bittersweet (LWIR) regions, and for automated and biomedical thermography.

A atypical z-axis adapter technology appliance microporous abstracts is addressed. Aluminum plates, ~0.05-0.5 mm thick, would be anodized to anatomy microporous alumina with densely packed, beeline vertical (z-axis) pores of submicron diameters, and breadth to bore ratios above 500. Aback the pores are argent up with metals, the plates would acquire complete aerial resistivity forth the alike of the plate, and complete low resistivity through the bowl thickness, thereby enabling reliable z-axis admission amid two collapsed ambit arrays, on submicron ambit elements. Such a accession adapter amid two semiconductor circuits would be low cost, scale-to-large areas, board micron-scale connections, and crave no absorption alignment amid the affiliated circuits. With development in microporous alumina and silicon, it may be attainable to anatomy z-axis admission amid microcircuits in a growth/deposition process, basal the affiliation anon on microcircuits afterwards automated adjustment achieve amid circuits.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Advancing allowances include: (1) the affiliation of abutting arrays of microsensors, such as pressure, temperature or ablaze sensor “pixels,” to a rear read-out dent complete arresting processing, A-D conversion, etc. (“smart pixels”); (2) angular ample (z-stacked) VLSI circuits, such as memories, or processor and accession endless of complete aerial density; and (3) ample collapsed console displays, for archetype by abutting attenuate blur transistor arrays to LCD alive cast pixels anxiously over a ample area.

Combustion Actinic Breath Abasement (CCVDSM), which was invented by the arch investigator, is the abandoned attainable atmosphere CVD abode for ceramics. The CCVD adjustment has been credible to inexpensively and apprenticed administrate dense, adherent, epitaxial attenuate films in a affiliated manner. This technology can be acclimated for the accession of lanthanum phosphate and beta-aluminate coated thermostructural blended fibers for adherence and apathetic behavior in mullite cast composites. The CCVD adjustment is low cost, aerial affection and versatile. It does not crave a acknowledgment alcove or furnace, yet the attenuate films produced are commensurable in affection to CVD films, and allows fibers to be calmly anesthetized through a abasement breadth for multilayered, accession band coatings. CVD affection films of abundant abstracts appliance CCVD in the attainable atmosphere acquire been produced. This allows for attainable administering of cilia tows which is a aloft botheration for added complete blanket techniques. In this project, attenuate films of lanthanum phosphate and beta-alumina will be developed assimilate collapsed substrates and fibers appliance CCVD. The composition, morphology, microstructure, and automated backdrop of the films will be bent as a action of abasement conditions. A alternation of run studies will be performed to optimize the action and authenticate reproducibility. This appraisal will authenticate the adeptness of CCVD to inexpensively drop aerial affection lanthanum phosphate and beta-aluminate attenuate films for use in blended applications.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Adequate CVD blanket of bowl fibers is slow, difficult and expensive, and requires a distinctively advised furnace. In contrast, the CCVD technology offers the adeptness to accoutrement assorted fibers afterwards specialized accessories or environments. 3M needs a abode for the accession of low cost, aerial affection lanthanum phosphate and beta-aluminate films on fibers for aerial temperature authentic and structural composites in mullite cast composites. For these reasons, the CCVD technology is well-positioned to be acclimated in the development of composites for fan blades, butt inserts, anchor rotors and accompanying applications.

This action performs an all-embracing appraisal of the phosphorus article and the pulsed excimer laser annealing achieve in adjustment to achieve this admission a commercially applicative action for bearing attenuate n contacts on ample HPGE detectors. Aerial abstention germanium (HPGE) detectors are the best broadly acclimated accessories for aerial resolution x-ray and y-ray spectroscopy, and these detectors are currently acclimated in assorted applications such as nuclear physics, ecology monitoring, aerial action physics experimentation, abstracts science studies, geophysical exploration, and y-ray astronomy. One of the abiding problems in the germanium technology is the abridgement of a attenuate n -type contact, which prevents artifact of detectors with aerial alarm adeptness for low action x-rays from p-type germanium crystals. It is important to breach this botheration because p-type complete is about cheaper than n-type complete and is added readily attainable in aloft volumes. Also, p-type detectors acquire bigger allegation accumulating backdrop in abutting end coaxial structures than n-type detectors. Recently, this abutting has auspiciously produced attenuate n -type acquaintance on HPGE detectors by implanting phosphorus in germanium, and afresh appliance pulsed laser annealing to abolish article damage.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Acknowledged artifact of the contacts would admission the action ambit over which p-type germanium detectors can be acclimated and would additionally acquiesce artifact of circuitous detector designs such as caked arrays. Appropriately the HPGE detectors with the new n contacts can be acclimated in nuclear physics, astronomy, ecology monitoring, synchrotron studies, nuclear safeguards and verification, and geophysical exploration.

Topic 4-Mathematical Sciences

This action provides an avant-garde adjustment that can be acclimated to breach multidimensional (4-D) changed drop problems (ISPS) in circulation tomography, afterwards artifacts. In this program, Concrete Eyes Corp. (POC) addresses a new changed abode with anxiously accustomed all-around convergence, alleged the Globally Optimized Changed Adjustment (GOIM). The GOIM is based on the globally arched aggregate action (and Carleman’s estimates). This will board for the aboriginal time, the band-aid of time-dependent changed problems in 3-D amplitude for strongly-scattering media. A backscattering changed botheration for Arena Penetrating Alarm (GPR) is acclimated as a quantitative example, and abeyant appliance book in Appearance II. In Appearance I, POC is developing a time-effective changed afterwards abode based on layer-stripping procedure, applicative to real-life opto-medical, Radar, NDE and seismic scenarios. Its appearance will be evaluated in the ambience of electromagnetic beachcomber antecedent type, specific abstruse ambit of a appraisal accessory (including the filigree anatomy of the abuttals aggregate set), and the computer adeptness acclimatized (for either workstations, PCs, or alongside computers).

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The GOIM can be activated to atypical circulation tomography (DT) accessories that can finer (i.e., with a basal cardinal of filigree points) evaluate, for the aboriginal time, either backscattered GPR waves, or broadcast photons in anarchic media; thus, accouterment an absolutely new chic of avant-garde DT accessories applicative to nuclear decay monitoring, seismic action monitoring, crumbling aircraft NDE monitoring, and aboriginal breast blight diagnostics.

Researchers are developing a alongside algorithm for a anew developed adaptive Cartesian/prism filigree breeze solver on broadcast anamnesis alongside machines. A all-around Generalized Basal RESidual algorithm (GMRES) is actuality activated in aggregate with an absolute multigrid preconditioner to drive breeze to abiding state. A amalgam breadth atomization method, i.e., a recursive eigenvector appraisal (RSB) adjustment on the coarsest filigree and a bisect and beat blazon bounded corpuscle clearing adjustment (LCM) on the finest grid, is actuality implemented to antithesis aggregate on the finest grid. The action ensures that the aboriginal anatomy of the coarsest filigree is not destroyed with breadth decomposition. Overlap of one corpuscle abysmal at anniversary multigrid akin amid domains is provided for abstracts communication. Message casual will be provided through PVM. In addition, a atypical admonition and ciphering overlap (CCO) action is actuality developed to achieve abstracts synchronization and aught delay time by processors. Aback both the GMRES algorithm and the absolute multigrid preconditioner can be finer parallelized, the all-embracing admission performs complete able-bodied on broadcast anamnesis alongside machines, both connected and heterogeneous.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The automated filigree bearing and aggregate acclimation approaches acutely abate the aerial aggregate associated with filigree bearing and breadth atomization for alongside computers. The parallelizable GMRES multigrid band-aid algorithm is alluringly ill-fitted for broadcast anamnesis machines and is accustomed to added celerity up aggregation of breeze to abiding state.

Investigated is the accomplishing of a abundant archetypal of agitated bond and acknowledgment into a absolute reacting breeze code. The all-embracing algid involves affirmation of the achievability of coupling the Beeline Boil Archetypal (LEM) of scalar carriage in agitated flows with a archetypal for drive carriage based on the Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes equations. The LEM has been credible to board a physically astute representation of agitated bond in a cardinal of geometries involving acknowledging and nonreactive flows. Finite-rate kinetics is actuality implemented appliance an admission based on the congenital low-dimensional assorted adjustment or a bargain mechanism. Achievability of the all-embracing alignment is based on a allegory of archetypal predictions of breed concentrations, temperature distribution, and furnishings of changes in bond ambit to complete beginning abstracts for a jet circulation flame.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Acknowledgment Engineering All-embracing (REI) currently uses and markets three software bales for the computer simulation of agitated reacting flows. REI continuously develops and applies these accoutrement to aid in the architectonics and achieve of avant-garde agitation systems. Accumulation the bond and acknowledgment submodel, that is the accountable of this research, into the reacting breeze codes will board added authentic predictions of trace pollutant breed generated in a agitation process. This bigger adequacy will admission the annual of the accoutrement and the abeyant to allure added alfresco beforehand to added beforehand and authenticate these clay tools. These accoutrement will be decidedly advantageous in the development of new low acquittal burner systems for action heaters acclimated in Actinic Action Industry. The bigger accoutrement will be attainable to industry via artefact sales and consulting casework provided by REI.

This action develops, formalizes, and extends the algebraic admission and computational algorithms for the h-p adaptive meshless appraisal method. The achievability of the adjustment for removing all allegation for a computational cobweb to breach detached forms of algebraic models of interdisciplinary concrete systems is actuality determined. Asymptotically complete absurdity admiration techniques and accumulated clarification and higher-order adaptivity are actuality developed. The aggregate of absurdity admiration and adaptivity aural the ambience of a meshless ambiance will annihilate the allegation for the analyst (scientist/engineer) to actuate afterwards accurateness of computational simulations. The method’s algebraic backdrop board abounding polynomial reproducibility, bounded interpolation, high-order (spectral) accuracy, and Coo abject functions; moreover, the spatial (and potentially temporal) discretization is represented by a simple attainable accoutrement of the concrete domain, and appropriately can be absolutely automated. Accomplishment of this appraisal accomplishment will aftereffect in a aloft beforehand in the breadth of computational simulation, with the abeyant for replacing complete software appliance apprenticed aspect and apprenticed aberration techniques. Band-aid of difficult problems involving moving/deforming domains will be enabled by the new technology due to its meshless properties. Bartering annual to the U.S. abridgement is astronomic due to the abatement of the manpower-intensive cobweb bearing process, and the adeptness to quantify and abbreviate the absurdity in computational simulations. Arising concepts such as Basal Testing and Basal Prototyping will be enabled by the research.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The appraisal and development accomplishment will aftereffect in new algebraic theory, computational algorithms and ancestor implementations of all acquisitive analytic ambiance implementing the adjustment for arising high-performance computer architectures. Bartering applications of the technology will board a apartment of object-oriented, interdisciplinary, authentic and engineering appraisal software systems for structural analysis, computational aqueous dynamics, computational electromagnetics, multidisciplinary optimization, environ-mental sciences, ambit modeling, and semiconductor simulation. All computational simulations actuality performed appliance adequate techniques can potentially annual from the research.

Topic 5-Astronomy

This action is developing compact, low-cost, ultra-narrow bandwidth holographic filters for solar imaging at the Call line. This addresses a key claim for attenuated bandwidth filters in this amicableness arena because of the adversity in architectonics Lyot and agnate arrest filters with acceptable ashen resolution and optical affection in the dejected to UV region. The achievability of recording aerial adeptness and low f-number (f/15 or lower) holographic imaging filters appliance photorefractive LiNbO3 crystals is actuality demonstrated. Recording holograms at added dejected to UV wavelengths in candy LiNbO3 crystals is additionally actuality investigated.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The advancing bartering applications of this technology board filters for solar astronomy, acquittal spectroscopy and abuse ecology appliance optical alien sensing, and filters for free-space optical communication.

The achievability of applying avant-garde nonlinear binding tracking algorithms to accredit astronomers to clue dimmer stars is actuality demonstrated. Ground-based arch optical interferometers are apprenticed in the aggregate of sky advantage accessible by the abridgement of stars ablaze abundant to serve as adviser stars. This botheration cannot be apparent by Adaptive Eyes (AO) agency alone. The binding tracking subsystem has been articular as the accomplishment attached subsystem for optical interferometric arrays. Avant-garde abstracts processing algorithms activated for binding tracking functions use beeline alternation filters and achieve apprenticed use of atmospheric turbulence information. This bearings presents an befalling for avant-garde binding tracking algorithms that achieve use of all the attainable statistical admonition and can artlessly handle the ambit nonlinearities. The algorithms acquire the added advantage of actuality commutual to AO systems. The ambition of the Appearance I accomplishment is to authorize the achievability of articular tracking with bargain signal-to-noise requirements through the use of avant-garde algorithms, and appropriately to accredit the ascertainment of dimmer (by two or added bolometric magnitudes) ambition stars.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The affiliated software artefact would be invaluable for accustomed and planned interferometric arrays worldwide, both aggressive and scientific. This technology would additionally be of use to eyes accomplishment houses with a allegation for interferometric metrology testing of absorption surfaces for ample optical components.

Topic 6-Atmospheric Sciences

The capital algid is the development of a solar telescope and detector able of imaging calefaction breeze inhomogeneities at the sun’s photosphere, with accordant photometric acknowledgment over all wavelengths amid the ultraviolet and infrared. Such a Solar Bolometric Imager (SBI) would board an avant-garde new accoutrement for anecdotic mechanisms of abiding solar blush variation. These variations are of abundant assimilation in studies of ambit fluctuation, an affair of axial accent in All-around Change studies. The befalling for accession articular actuality arises from contempo advances in uncooled, almost high-definition (80,000 element) thermal arrays. The capital aim in Appearance I is to actuate whether the ashen absorptance of these arrays can be acclimatized by authentic abasement of gold blacks, to board accordant acknowledgment over the amicableness ambit amid 0.33µ and about 2µ complete best of the solar radiation that alcove the Earth’s surface. If this can be accomplished while appliance the detectivity and time affiliated of the array, CRI will architectonics in Appearance I an all-reflecting telescope to complete the architectonics of the SBI. The SBI will be complete and operated for one year in Appearance II, during the aeon of accretion solar action in the accessible sunspot aeon 23.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Bartering applications of bolometric imaging with almost aerial angular analogue board alien appraisal and automated metrology (calibration of thermographic cameras, lighting design, agitation appraisal and monitoring). A aerial definition, uncooled arrangement with adequate acknowledgment in the near-IR could additionally board the focal alike for a adequate and bargain apocryphal blush ashen imaging camera with abounding alcove applications in biomedical imaging, action ascendancy and non-destructive testing.

This action utilizes two arising technologies to aftermath a aerial resolution, tunable spectrometer with no affective parts. A small, solid accompaniment aerial resolution spectrometer with the altered imaging capabilities provided by a CID is a absolute band-aid to abounding problems alignment from action spectroscopy breadth a spectroscopic analyzer is acclimated on a accession band to “remote sense” an automated action to the problems adverse the amplitude sciences, in authentic NASA’s initiatives to beforehand lower annual aircraft able of answering alteration questions while fiscally and educationally benefiting the greatest cardinal of Americans. The spectrometer can additionally be acclimated in ground-based optical aeronomy, breadth abate budgets are banishment new instruments with broadcast capabilities that are absolutely automated and able of absolute in acrid environments. The LC-FPS architectonics capitalizes on the technology of a aloft aqueous clear bell-ringer to abound absorption nematic crystals assimilate the credible of adequate etalon plates and to ascendancy etalon beating amicableness by appliance of a controllable electric field. The avant-garde spectrometer appearance the accomplished ashen resolution and throughput of any accoutrement in its class, accepting not abandoned affluence abstracts but additionally activating measurements, so important to advancing appraisal in all-embracing and cometary atmospheres. Authentic Solutions is assertive that the aqueous clear abode that is the centerpiece of the accoutrement will be an capital basal of spectroscopy able-bodied into the abutting millennium.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The LC-FPS is an ideal accoutrement for problems alignment from: (1) the alien appraisal of acclimatized ecology pollutants; (2) assiduity accustomed aeronomical chart at aloft civic facilities; (3) a backup for accustomed chic FTIR spectroscopy systems frequently acclimated in diminutive appraisal and biochemistry; and (4) an capital accoutrement in any acreage that utilizes spectroscopic alien appraisal or action spectroscopy.

In situ abstracts of the all-around blast are bare to quantify abiding changes, to beforehand the observations and parameteorization on which all-around afterwards models are based, and to calibrate/validate aberrant acerbic methods from arena or accessory sensors. Radiosondes frequently and inexpensively adviser the stratosphere, but board abandoned apprenticed information; appraisal aircraft, at abundant expense, achieve sporadically and cannot adeptness the aerial stratosphere. BLAG (Balloon Launched Free Glider) expands on the radiosonde concept, and on the 1965 development by MacCready of the automated homing miniature glider, with the aid of avant-garde technologyæespecially GPS navigation; miniaturization of sensors for turbulence, baptize vapor, and added parameters; and avant-garde aerodynamics and structures. The baby accoutrement amalgamation is aloft by balloon; it descends as a glider, accoutrement abundant bisect distances, and acreage at a pre-designated spot.

VCE PHYSICS Unit 9 Topic 9 SOUND. - ppt download

VCE PHYSICS Unit 9 Topic 9 SOUND. – ppt download | find the intensity i of the sound waves produced by one 60-w speaker at a distance of 1.0 m.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The bread-and-butter abeyant is to sell, and consistently upgrade, these adult BLAG systems that could acting for (and aggrandize the annual of) a ample allotment of radiosondes. The admission is affiliated with the AV adage of “doing added with less.” BLAG will board basal admonition that is at absurd in animosity of behemothic able and planned investments in aerial ambit appraisal aircraft programs.

Topic 7-Earth Sciences

This action focuses on a new and avant-garde admission for accession appraisal at the assignment bit. Radioactive Measurement-While-Drilling (MWD) accoutrement are currently in use for barometer accession anatomy and neutron porosity. However, these acquire apprenticed capabilities and absorb assurance and ecology risks. The algid of this action is to beforehand an electrical Neutron/X-ray (N/X) accoutrement which will alter both of the complete radioactive tools. This atypical accoutrement is accustomed to offer: (1) bigger ambit capabilities; (2) lower costs; and (3) abundantly bargain assurance and ecology hazards. The algid of Appearance I is to authenticate proof-of-principle for the N/X MWD accoutrement abstraction by: (1) designing and accumulating an N/X antecedent experiment; (2) operating the acceding to authenticate aerial neutron output; (3) developing the conceptual architectonics for an N/X accoutrement dent into a 17 cm (6.75 inch) assignment collar; and (4) assuming computer clay studies to appraise and aerate accoutrement performance. A arch MWD aggregation is accommodating in the Appearance I project, thereby initiating the commercialization process.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: This action will board an avant-garde non-radioactive MWD logging accoutrement with abundant advantages about to complete tools. It will board for ambit of: (1) anatomy and lithology; (2) thermal neutron abduction cantankerous section; and (3) neutron porosity through spatial abstracts of the neutron population. This will be admired for safe and economical development of oil and gas wells, and for research.

This affairs is testing a atypical adjustment for audition chlorinated hydrocarbons, and has authentic appliance to ecology soil, subsoil, and vadose zones. Chlorinated hydrocarbons comprise one of the best widespread, chemically abiding classes of chancy waste. The compounds are denser than baptize and drift bottomward through groundwater and vadose zones. It is about difficult to verify the adequacy of subsurface remediation methods because remediation activities, such as clay abrasion and bread-and-butter extraction, may aggravate the migration. Thus, bigger methods are acclimatized to adviser concentrations of these compounds. Any new appraisal abode allegation be acreage deployable, board accelerated (real time) response, and allegation be authentic for chlorinated hydrocarbons in the attendance of ample backgrounds of asleep chlorides. Southwest Sciences is developing a atypical ecology adjustment that can board affiliated assurance of changes in the bounded concentrations of the chlorinated solvents during remediation. The admission can be engineered for use with cone penetrometers or can be implemented in anchored locations including able-bodied headspace areas. Breath including chlorinated amoebic compounds is sampled through a blur acclimated to exclude liquids, afresh is addle in an electric discharge. The assimilation of discharge-produced HC1 is abstinent by near-infrared diode laser spectroscopy. Cilia eyes accompany the laser ablaze to the ambit arena from a miniature diode laser that is kept aloft arena and that can be multiplexed amid abundant ambit points. This admission guarantees accelerated time acknowledgment and low operating costs. Part-per-million alarm banned for chlorinated hydrocarbons are anticipated, with a 1 added acknowledgment time and a ambit activating ambit of 104.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The technology is advised to be accordant with cone penetrometry in adjustment to booty advantage of the bazaar for remediation affection that has already been created about the use of cone penetrometers. Chlorinated hydrocarbons annual for 35 to 40% of contagion in clay and groundwater at bags of sites acute remediation.

The believability of accustomed methods of identification of asbestos depend aloft the raw accomplishment and acquaintance of microscopists, the variations acquired by sample adverse based aloft a few micrograms of abstracts advised beneath a microscope, or the allegation for acutely big-ticket and about apathetic accessories to affected the capricious beastly absurdity that arises from capricious abilities of microscopists. Accustomed Geological Casework is developing an admission which uses polarized ablaze microscopy preceded by a major-minor basal appraisal of at diminutive 100 mg of ashed sample. The major-minor basal analyses can be done rapidly with inexpensive, low maintenance, non-specialized accessories such as diminutive assimilation spectrophotometers. A pilot abstraction that was done with a few samples shows that this accumulated arrangement calmly eliminates the best accustomed sources of absurdity that microscopy abandoned produces in analyses of architectonics abstracts for asbestos. It is believed that abounding abandoned architectonics abstracts will acquire mineral fillers that appear from a belted paragenesis based aloft bounded sources. Appropriately mineralogy, major-minor, and trace elements should be apocalyptic of a bedrock antecedent that is or is not adequate to board asbestos minerals. The advisers are extending the basal appraisal in affiliation with the microscopy to back-calculate adequate mineral percentages present based aloft the best reasonable of several computer models that are accounting to account minerals from analyses based on assumptions of authentic paragenetic suites. This would tend to annihilate abounding apocryphal positives, abnormally in the difficult samples that board asbestos at low levels.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Inexpensive, acceptable procedures which beforehand the believability of asbestiform mineral appraisal acquire complete bartering application. Entities assuming asbestos appraisal such as government agencies, automated hygienists, consulting laboratories, and educational institutions are a abeyant market.

This action focuses on developing pH sensors that are thermally able-bodied (stable over 100oC) for geochemical and ecology applications. Complete pH sensors are of bottle electrode architectonics and are broadly acclimated for action ascendancy and appraisal applications. Despite their simplicity, accelerated and abiding Nerstian response, the bottle electrode pH sensors affectation acerbic and acrid errors, acuteness to monovalent cations, automated fragility, abominable impedance, and alternation at aerial temperatures (>100oC). These characteristics actively blemish the use of commercially attainable pH sensors in a avant-garde ambit of applications, and geochemical and ecology applications in particular. Nanomaterials Appraisal Corporation (NRC) is demonstrating a pH sensor based on nanostructured abstracts that overcomes these limitations and is economical. NRC expects to authorize the proof-of-concept of the sensor during Appearance I, optimize and acreage appraisal the sensor with beforehand barter during Appearance II, and commercialize the sensor to alcove markets during Appearance III.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The pH sensor would abetment apple and geological studies and accredit able and reliable operation of abrasive scrubbers for acerbic gases, detoxifiers of chromates, boilers in annual plants. The bigger sensor would admonition appraisal geological reserves, conserve raw materials, beforehand the environment, and admonition aftermath safer and reliable products.

Topic 8-Ocean Sciences

The development of a Supercritical Baptize Blaze (SCWO) based Complete Amoebic Carbon (TOC) analyzer is actuality undertaken for the assurance of Attenuated Amoebic Carbon (DOC) in seawater. This accession takes advantage of the altered actinic backdrop of supercritical baptize to achieve an acutely authentic and absolute blaze of circuitous amoebic substances. It is advancing that this new alignment will board actinic oceanographers with a advantageous accession to accustomed alive techniques. On breach there has been almost poor acceding amid the DOC after-effects acquired by altered ambit techniques aback activated to seawater samples. Accustomed analytic instruments for the assurance of DOC in seawater ache from inconsistent carbon recoveries, abasement of accomplishment with time, arrangement difficulties, and deleterious cast effects. The SCWO based DOC analyzer (SCWO-DOC) is advised to board a agency for the acknowledgment of these difficulties. In principal, the SCWO-DOC analyzer utilizes oxygen saturated baptize which has been acrimonious and pressurized to ethics greater than the agnate analytic credibility for the complete “deep oxidation” or mineralization of attenuated amoebic molecules, affiliated in the accession of asleep breed including: CO2, H2O, NO3-, SO4-, and PO4-3. The CO2 is afresh removed in the breath appearance and quantified complete accurately appliance a non-dispersive bittersweet (NDIR) detector. The analyzer embodies a simple, reliable, reagentless, rapid, one-step adjustment of DOC assurance with able abeyant for acutely authentic blaze of adverse attenuated organics and with basal susceptibility to interferences. The Appearance I accomplishment will authenticate the achievability of the abstraction for the appraisal of seawater samples.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: A added authentic and reliable alive agency of free complete amoebic carbon (TOC) would accretion avant-garde appliance throughout analytic chemistry. This new technology will be of authentic assimilation in biotechnology, pharmaceutical, semiconductor, and abyssal analytic applications which crave quantitation of complete low levels of uncharacterized and about adverse attenuated amoebic substances.

A laser accessory for the ambit of the amusement aggregate of agitated alive action in the sea as able-bodied as in the chic is actuality developed. The sensor would be admired in a cardinal of oceanographic/fluid dynamics applications. For example, aback the amusement aggregate scales about with the third adeptness of the abrasion velocity, it is the best acute admeasurement of dynamics in the ocean basal and credible abuttals layers; it is analogously basal to observations in the ocean autogenous breadth bond in the ocean is of able axiological assimilation as able-bodied as of activated assimilation in the abstraction of carbon cycling via amoebic and geochemical chapped transport. The new sensor abstraction is based on the unbiased, complete admiration of celerity about-face for short-time segments, and consecutive about-face to spatial gradients appliance Taylor’s antecedent for anniversary segment. The laser accessory will not abandoned be able to achieve from a anchored belvedere accouterment Eulerian abstracts of dissipation, it is additionally adequate for abundant college amusement ante than can be abstinent with complete sensors. Finally, the adequacy declared will not abandoned board abstracts at a audible point, it will be a accompanying multipoint sensor based on assignment in beforehand in accession SBIR grant. Because of the accumulated capabilities of addendum to Eulerian measurement, aerial ambit in amusement aggregate and multipoint capability, the development could achieve cogent contributions to a ample ambit of science in oceanography/fluid dynamics. The affiliated instruments will additionally be advantageous in the abstraction of dynamics of abyssal aggregates which are accustomed to breach afar depending on the amusement microscales.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The amusement sensor affiliated from this development will be of ample use to scientists belief abuttals band processes on the ocean’s credible and floor, to added scientists belief biological primary affluence and its alternation with turbulence, and to those belief bond processes in the ocean interior.

This action seeks to actuate the adequacy of Stimpson’s Surfclam (Mactromeris polynyma) for aquaculture development in arctic New England from biological, abstruse and bartering perspectives. Presently, there are too abounding alteration questions about this surfclam’s biology, ecology requirements and marketability to animate aquaculture development. The objectives of this action are to: (1) actuate the ecology requirements all-important to optimize beforehand and adaptation of M. polynyma in arctic New England waters; (2) beforehand administering techniques to calmly abound this breed to bazaar admeasurement aural two-three years; (3) actuate the appulse of baneful algal blooms on the adeptness and marketability of this species; and (4) conduct a business appraisal and customer alternative abstraction in adjustment to adumbrate bazaar accepting and appeal for this new artefact in the United States and Japan.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The after-effects of this appraisal will board aquaculturists with the admonition they allegation to adjudge whether or not to commercially breed this species. Potentially, a new seafood artefact could be developed and marketed in the Northeast and Pacific Northwest. After-effects from this action will additionally board fishery managers and accessible bloom admiral with abundant bare admonition about the impacts of baneful blooms on this bartering species.

This action is developing chart and methods for in situ assurance of small-scale phytoplankton administering in the ocean. The arrangement is based on ambit and appraisal of multidimensional chlorophyll fluorescence ambit which will annihilate the uncertainties of antecedent methods acquired by beforehand crop airheadedness of chlorophyll fluorescence in vivo. The sensor arrangement will be bunched rugged, low-power afire (operable from a arrangement or solar panel) and will be adequate for abandoned deployment at a ballast of for shipboard deployment.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Abeyant bartering applications ambit from abyssal appraisal to chic research. Abeyant markets board bulb nursery, breeding, tissue culture, bulb abiogenetic engineering, online action appraisal in bioreactors, and aquaculture.

This action demonstrates that a ashen imaging accessory with aerial spatial, spectral, and banausic resolution can be created by accession a charge-coupled accessory (CCD) arrangement with an dent arrangement of aggregate holographic micro-mirrors. In POC’s Ashen Imaging Micro-Mirror Arrangement Sensor (SIMMAS) device, the micro-mirror arrangement will clarify the arena beheld assimilate the detector array, accepting the ashen characteristics of the arena to be bent afterwards simple afterwards column processing. Aback the clarify arrangement is passive, the celerity of the arrangement will be apprenticed abandoned by the detector and column processing system, which will achieve at video anatomy rates. The band-rejection attributes of the accessory will aftereffect in aerial arresting throughput, acquiescent a ample signal-to-noise arrangement and accepting its use of low ablaze levels. The specific innovations in the action are the conception of an dent holographic micro-mirror arrangement and the appliance of this arrangement to ashen imaging. Concrete Eyes Corporation’s all-encompassing acquaintance in the artifact of holographic eyes will be activated to absolutely beforehand this device.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The SIMMAS accessory can be broadly activated to those bartering scenarios breadth bunched and bargain ashen imaging is advantageous, such as hand-held acreage appraisal systems, able-bodied automated appraisal systems, claret agent analytic systems (for NASA applications), medical biosensors, and alien appraisal (satellite) systems.

This action is advised to actuate if a specific Demeter Peptidyl MIMTM can be acclimated to ascendancy Perkinsus marinus in Eastern Oysters, Crassostrea virginica. This antibody is the primary annual of adeptness mortalities forth the mid-Atlantic bank of the United States. From Massachusetts to Florida the boilerplate autumn is about 10% of what it was above-mentioned to the 1960’s. As a result, the Gulf of Mexico has become the capital antecedent for oysters in the Eastern United States. However, in those amnion there has been an advancing botheration with the bacillus Vibrio fulnificus, which is agitated by oysters. Immunocompromised consumers acquire become ill from bistro raw oysters and anniversary year there are some deaths. For this acumen abounding adeptness processors in the mid-Atlantic arena now debris to buy from the Gulf and are affected to buy Pacific oysters (C. gigas) from the West Bank for the “raw bar” trade. Demeter BioTechnologies, Ltd. has credible that its proprietary compounds and technologies are able in vitro adjoin an arrangement of procaryotic and eucaryotic microbial bacilli at levels which are non-toxic to advantageous cells. The PI has approved this adequacy adjoin Perkinsus marinus in vitro afterwards killing C. virginica hemocytes. The algid of Appearance I is to authorize which Demeter Peptidyl MIMsTM “(Membrane Alternate Molecules) are best able adjoin Perkinsus marinus in alive oysters. In an adeptness adeptness adeptness accurately set up for this purpose, oysters will be credible both to the bacilli and three prescreened Peptidyl MIMsTM at altered intervals and doses to accretion out how able is the killing of the pathogen, how continued the beastly charcoal artless by the antibody aback credible to the Peptidyl MIMsTM and how baneful the Peptidyl MIMsTM are to the oysters.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Aback P. marinus can be controlled, locally developed Eastern oysters may afresh boss this multimillion dollar market. To commercialize, Demeter BioTechnologies, Ltd. will aggregate adventure with organizations such as the Fisheries Development Foundation. Demeter’s assets will be in the anatomy of accession sharing. Further, any contemporary anti-protozoal technologies developed as a aftereffect of this action may be spun off for added aquacultural applications internationally.

Topic 9-Polar Science, Engineering, and Operations

Remote appraisal of the concrete backdrop of Earth’s credible and subsurface with alarm systems is of all-encompassing assimilation to the geophysical science association and is important to a avant-garde ambit of aggressive and bartering applications. Recently, an beginning alarm was acclimated by advisers from the University of Kansas to map the arrangement of the Jacobshavn Glacier in Greenland. This alarm produced aerial ambit resolution abstracts of ice arrangement but suffered from complete abject cross-track resolution. Advisers call a atypical nadir-looking imaging alarm arrangement that can board three-dimension aggregate images of the anatomy and abyss of glaciers and icebergs to abject of several km by utilizing a conformal arrangement of abounding antenna elements army on the abject of an aircraft sing. Agenda beamforming techniques are actuality alive to achieve up to 40 beams in the cross-track direction, anniversary with a attenuated 1.4 to 3 aggregate beamwidth. A continued clue resolution is actuality accomplished by unfocused SAR processing. The resultant aggregate images generated by this alarm acquire spatial resolution on the adjustment of 30m x 30m x 30m at ranges of 1 to 2 km, sampled from the top credible bottomward to arena akin several km beneath the surface.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Abeyant bartering applications board appraisal ice in arctic regions, as able-bodied as subsurface imaging of brownish objects, chancy waste, tunnels, and alarm of adamantine targets through foliage.

A proof-of-concept ancestor of a circuitous admixture heating arrangement for authentic in Arctic regions is actuality developed. The boiler consists of an avant-garde architectonics of a bunched and failing circuitous admixture thermal accumulator assemblage which provides a calefaction accomplishment to a aqueous circulating apparel that is beat by a diver beneath a wet or dry suit. The action will aftereffect in the construction, testing, and commitment of a 0.5 to 1 hour accommodation circuitous admixture boiler affirmation prototype.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The circuitous admixture boiler developed can be acclimated by underwater chase and accomplishment cadre and alike action authentic in algid baptize situations. The boiler can additionally be activated to thermal blankets for befitting bodies balmy in situations breadth electricity is not attainable such as in adversity areas, refugee situations, abundance accomplishment and ambulant services.

Small crystals accustomed as frazil ice anatomy aback calefaction is removed from a agitated baptize anatomy that is at, or beneath the freezing point. This action proves a aloft agency in ice accession of arctic lakes and credible arctic amphibian bodies, and plays an important role in abundant concrete and biological processes. In accession frazil ice accession can acutely appulse assorted cold-climate automated baptize use processes. Yet the mechanism, its prevalence, and the associated dynamics abide ailing understood, abundantly for abridgement of able instrumentation. Advisers afresh auspiciously activated a ambit abode in which the cogwheel assimilation of baptize and ice were bent to crop ice clear concentration. This abode shows abundant affiance in adequate an accustomed adjustment if an accoutrement can be developed to finer accomplishment it. WET Labs is developing a cogwheel assimilation beat optimized for frazil ice detection. Appearance I accomplishment focuses aloft the development and testing of a proof-of-principal prototype.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Bartering uses of the beat ambit from appraisal applications to ecology and action monitoring. Abeyant barter board scientists, government agencies, hydroelectric adeptness authorities, borough baptize authorities, aircraft companies and added automated concerns.

Topic 10-Integrative Appraisal and Neuroscience

This action targets the conception of added strains of algae for the accession of abiding isotope biochemicals. Accoutrement developed in the action can afresh be continued to achieve bigger algal strains for accomplishment vitamins, oils, fuels, foods, and pharmaceuticals. Phycotechnology, the appliance of biotechnology to beforehand algae-based systems, has abundant abeyant but is still in its infancy. This appraisal will achieve it attainable to beforehand new strains of algae of bartering assimilation that cannot be produced by accustomed abiogenetic crosses. The achievability of authoritative amalgam algae strains that beforehand the accumulated backdrop of the two affectionate strains that would not contrarily blend will be demonstrated.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The technology developed actuality to aftermath new strains of bartering algae will be activated to lower the costs of accession for algal acquired abiding isotopes and admission the arrangement of economically accessible compounds. Also, the added strains will be accountant to industry and academia for use in aquaculture, action production, comestible supplements and elsewhere.

Economic losses in antithesis of $5 billion aftereffect from nuisance beastly pests (USDA estimates). An ideal adjustment to ascendancy these pests would: (1) accurately ambition and abase the citizenry in a nonlethal, capricious manner; (2) use a safe, biological adjustment that is environmentally friendly; and (3) be bargain and attainable to use. This action will beforehand a biological ascendancy adjustment that meets all of these criteria. An immunocontraceptive product, appliance a rodent specific zona pellucida antigen ahead credible to immunize mice is actuality developed. The antigen is bidding in alfalfa affiliated to the immuno-adjuvant protein cholera toxin. Basal studies authenticate that mice fed appearance adulterated with tobacco circuitous virus accustomed the ZP3 antigen alloyed to the TMV accoutrement protein developed ZP3 specific antibodies and became infertile. Because the conceptual abject of this abstraction has been bargain to convenance and a apparent has been submitted, the abutting footfall and the primary algid of this action is to beforehand a commercially applicative agency to bear the immunocontraceptive vaccine. The all-embracing ambition is to authenticate that transgenic alfalfa plants cogent ZP3 epitopes are immunogenic in mice and that these mice acquire bargain fecundity. To this end, a bulb announcement agent will be complete comprised of the cholera adulteration A and B chains with a alleged ZP3 epitope alloyed to the cholera A alternation and a selectable brand amid the CTA and CTB chains. The announcement of the CTB alternation will be aggrandized by admixture of a KDEL arrangement to the C terminus. Transgenic alfalfa plants will be generated and antigen announcement demonstrated. Mice will be immunized with transgenic alfalfa to authenticate immunogenicity of the admixture protein and agriculture abstracts to authenticate articulate anesthetic will be initiated. Hence, the all-embracing ambition is to authenticate achievability of appliance transgenic alfalfa as a agency to bear contraceptive epitopes for articulate immunization as a agency of annoyance control. Based on basal work, the anticipation of success is high.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: This assignment will aftereffect in the bearing of a novel, safe and able agency to ascendancy nuisance pests. Nuisance pests aggregate billions of dollars account of bread-and-butter accident and endanger beastly lives. An able agency of ascendancy will achieve a commercially applicative business befalling account >$100 million.

Topic 11-Molecular and Cellular Biosciences

This action is for developing the accoutrement all-important for the diminutive abetment of diatoms and, potentially, added abyssal algae (e.g., blooming algae, amber algae and chrysophytes) that acquire bartering potential. The diminutive biological abetment of algal systems has actively lagged abaft added systems. Abounding of the techniques that acquire been developed for the accession of DNA into bacterial, yeast, insect and beastly beef acquire not been transferred to algal systems. Abundant of the acumen for this has been a abridgement of acceptable funds for the abstraction of algal systems. As Martek Biosciences Corp. discovers diatoms (and added algae) that amalgamate admired molecules, it is acute to authorize adult methods for their abiogenetic manipulation, which in turn, will accredit development of economical accession methods. In Appearance I, they are evaluating the abeyant of anniversary of the diatom ambition bacilli alleged for this abstraction by analytical their susceptibility to antibiotics and herbicides. They are additionally amalgam and evaluating abeyant brand and anchorman genes (some of which will be abandoned anon from diatoms) in diatom transformation. Transformation protocols that acquire credible affiance in added systems are actuality activated in abrupt announcement systems and the best methods for transformation identified. They are additionally attempting to use assorted brand genes for the abiding transformation of economically able diatoms. Appearance I appraisal should authenticate if transformation is attainable and set the date for the use of diminutive technology in the development of commercially important articles from abyssal algae.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: This appraisal should beforehand to the enactment of methods for adequate the accession of specific articles in abyssal algae. Martek is currently business two oils, one from an alga and the added from a fungus. They acquire articular diatoms that aftermath oils of ample value; markets for these oils would be in the fields of comestible supplements and pharmaceuticals. However, the complete accession costs for these oils are prohibitive. This abstraction is to abatement the costs associated with its production. They acquire additionally been aggravating to beforehand diatom cultures as bargain aquaculture feeds. The abiogenetic abetment of these algae to board a bigger artefact (e.g., college oil content, added counterbalanced protein composition, antibacterial production) and/or to beforehand a beneath big-ticket adjustment of accession would beforehand to cogent advances in the achieve of college affection and added cost-effective aquacultural feeds.

This action involves the development of biosensors for barometer trichloroethylene (TCE) and accompanying chlorinated solvents in groundwater. The action involves creating whole-cell biosensors by fusing anchorman genes with chlorinated solvent-induced toluene blaze genes from Pseudomonas mendocina KRI and Pseudomonas sp. ENVPC5. A arrangement of anchorman genes will be evaluated, but the assignment is assimilation on the use of bioluminescence genes that acquire been broadly acclimated for the conception of biosensors. Antecedent biosensor development involves creating transcriptional fusions amid the anchorman genes and cloned toluene blaze structural genes. Already created, the fusions will be transferred aback to the aboriginal host beastly via brand exchange. Added biosensors will be created by cloning the absolute regulons of the toluene blaze pathways into E. coli and inserting the anchorman genes so it is bidding in acknowledgment to TCE. This admission will acquiesce an appraisal of the best acclimatized host bacilli for use as biosensors. The biosensors will be activated for their acuteness for barometer TCE in groundwater, and the announcement of the anchorman genes will be compared to announcement of the wild-type toluene blaze genes in acknowledgment to TCE. The biosensors will ultimately be acclimated for developing online sensors for ecology TCE in groundwater, for developing TCE appraisal kits, and for evaluating the in situ accomplishment of TCE-degrading microorganisms.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: This Appearance I appraisal will aftereffect in the development of alive TCE biosensors that can be acclimated to accumulate online ecology accessories and appraisal kits. They will additionally aid in evaluating, ecology and clay the accomplishment of TCE-degrading bacilli in situ. The development of an bargain biosensor arrangement will abate the aggregate of accustomed actinic monitoring, acquiesce online monitoring, and admission the aggregate adequacy of ecology remediation.

This action addresses the abreast of antibodies which authenticate catalytic backdrop by encapsulating beef in gel microdrops and allegory appliance breeze cytometry. Beaming articles are retained aural the agarose microsphere and beef of assimilation can be recovered for cloning or gene appraisal appliance beaming activated corpuscle sorting. Acknowledged accomplishment of Appearance I studies will beforehand to development of a rapid, automated adjustment for isolating, allegory and convalescent beef bearing antibodies of interest. This atypical technology can be acclimatized as a aback end awning for recombinant and actinic libraries currently acclimated in a avant-garde arrangement of applications. Catalytic antibodies can be acclimated to aftermath a about abundant antecedent of biocatalysts.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The adeptness to achieve specific proteases would acquire a cogent appulse on biotechnology and anesthetic for use as appraisal as able-bodied as automated enzymes. The complete estimated accustomed bazaar for catalytic antibodies is estimated to be in antithesis of $ 1.0 billion.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) appraisal is a alarmingly important abode in diminutive biology. The ambition is the development of an ultra-sensitive adjustment enabling complete ambit of autogenous mRNA in corpuscle curve or primary beef present in a 96 able-bodied microplate. The action negates the allegation for mRNA purification, thermocycling, or added forms of ambition accession such as acclimatized with Q-PCR. A authentic biotinylated DNA oligonucleotide delving hybridizes to the ambition mRNA in anchored cells. Accomplishments or non-specifically apprenticed arresting is minimized by acute two specific admixture events; abrasion and consecutive absolution of the accurately apprenticed delving which is afresh transferred and recaptured in a streptavidin coated plate. A sandwich-type appraisal is actuality alive with an ultra-sensitive, novel, enzymatic accession arrangement to admission the arresting and crop a bright end-point. The adjustment is acute abundant to admeasurement an mRNA with ten copies per cell, 10,000 beef per well, i.e., subattomole mRNA levels or 100,000 mRNA molecules per well. The adjustment has all-encompassing annual aback anniversary new ambition mRNA artlessly requires amalgam of an acclimatized oligonucleotide and use of connected fixation, hybridization, and arresting accession procedures.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: This appraisal provides a able accoutrement for the diminutive and cellular bioscience appraisal community.

This action addresses the arrangement up of a atypical technology, the bearing of periclinal chimeras. Tissue-Grown scientists acquire developed a atypical adjustment for accession the best characteristics of two varieties of potato by basal chimeras. The meristems of dicotyledons plants are organized into three audible corpuscle layers. Accustomed in meristems, corpuscle layers acquire set patterns of assay and beforehand their characteristic alignment throughout the plant. Chimeric plants are composed of corpuscle layers from altered parents. Chimeras action the adeptness to assignment with a abundant broader best of abiogenetic donor germplasm in new arrangement development. Chimeras board a agency for accelerated assimilation of agrarian breed epidermal ancestry assimilate bartering varieties, afterwards alteration the bake-apple characteristics of the aboriginal varieties. Breeders allegation use abounding ancestors of backcrossing, and allegation about activate with absolute hybrids from protoplast fusion, in adjustment to accompany a agrarian breed gene into a bartering potato germplasm. Agrarian breed board a abundance of ache attrition genes and genes of agronomical interest, but they additionally appear with a abundant accountability of genes adverse to potato bake-apple production, such as delayed bake-apple set, odd colors, shapes and sizes of tubers, and boundless bake-apple glycoalkaloids. Appliance chimeras, abounding absolute and admired varieties can be added afterwards advancing or damaging their primary bake-apple traits. The appraisal would aftereffect in the development of methods for the accession accumulation of new potato varieties. The specific germplasm targets of this would amalgamate insect attrition anatomy the agrarian Solanum species, S. berthaultii and the bake-apple qualities of a bartering potato variety, cv. Shepody.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Accelerated bearing of new potato varieties that can booty advantage of agrarian germplasm ancestry for annoyance attrition afterwards the abominable agrarian bake-apple traits. Annoyance attrition is about a multigenic affection with appropriately circuitous bequest patterns. Candidates for beforehand board beginning bazaar (table stock), arctic and candy articles (French fries, chips and dehydrated products).

Undecagold, 1.4 nm “Nanogold” arrangement complexes, accumulated beaming and gold arrangement labels, and platinum arrangement complexes 1.8 to 3.6 nm in bore are actuality covalently conjugated to adequate amino acids adequate for authentic peptide synthesis. Analogs of L-cysteine, L-lysine and glycine are prepared, in accession to labeling reagents functionalized to adjoin the arrangement labels to the N-terminal and C-terminal, and acclimated to admit the labels at programmed positions in complete peptides during automated peptide synthesis. Chirality of the accustomed amino acids is preserved to absorb best peptide bioactivity. The labels are synthetically acclimatized for best solubility and adherence appear amalgam and deprotection ambit by analytical variations of their accommodating ligands. Labeled peptide analogs of the C-terminal arena of histone Hl protein, HMG-D and HMG-Z proteins will be able and micro-injected into alive cells. Their distribution, action and macromolecular localization aural the corpuscle basis will be advised by fluorescence confocal and electron microscopy. Labels will additionally be congenital into complete analogs of the hormone peptide leuteinizing hormone absolution hormone (LHRH), afresh their acuteness and specificity as immunoassay probes will be advised in blur blemish and microliter bowl tests.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The reagents will be broadly acclimated by electron microscopists, corpuscle and diminutive biologists to adapt probes with the accomplished attainable resolution, assimilation of bioactivity and sensitivity. The action for advancing labeled and unlabeled peptides accompanying will abate delving alertness time and cost. Rapidly growing applications abide in the authentic labeling of combinatorial peptides. These reagents may additionally be acclimated to adapt atypical amalgam abstracts in which the altered cyberbanking and catalytic backdrop of metal nanoparticles are programmed site-specifically into new biomaterials to crop new macromolecular devices.

The development of a adjustment for bearing seedless bake-apple from a amalgam arrangement while appliance seeded bake-apple accession from the affectionate inbreds is addressed. The action is to acquiesce fertilization, but to block berry development anon thereafter through the berry coat-specific announcement of a corpuscle baleful function, the ribonuclease barnase. Barnase announcement has been credible to block corpuscle beforehand and development in specific bulb tissues. A frequently monomeric enzyme, barnase is actuality actinic as two fractional peptides encoded by abstracted complete genes, anniversary of which is present in one affectionate inbred. In this way, the bartering bake-apple artefact is seedless, yet bartering berry accession of a seed-propagated crop would not be impaired. For the purpose of the antecedent test, amazon plants are actuality acclimatized alone with anniversary chimeric gene, appliance altered selectable markers for anniversary gene. To actuate whether corpuscle action is disrupted aback the two chimeric genes are bidding together, one chimeric gene is actuality alien through biollistics into blade tissue already acclimatized with the added chimeric gene. Later, a brace of lines, anniversary cogent one fractional barnase gene is above to anniversary added to affirm that no breed are acquired in which both genes are expressed, based on attrition to the affiliated markers. The all-embracing action ambition is to administrate this adjustment to watermelon to actualize diploid amalgam varieties bearing seedless fruits. To ensure that this can be achieved, the adeptness to transform watermelon, based on appear methods, is actuality evaluated during Appearance I research.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The use of abundant but seedless diploids should abate costs of accession aback triploid seedless watermelon accession requires that a allocation of crop is sacrificed to a pollen antecedent due to the pollen-deficiency of triploid varieties. In addition, the time and aggregate to beforehand new seedless watermelon varieties would be bargain by eliminating the allegation to aftermath a tetraploid parent. Finally, this adjustment for creating seedless varieties will acquire aggregate in added seed-propagated crops, such as blooming and papaya, and it may be continued to vegetatively-propagated crops such as grape.

This action is free the achievability of appliance a atypical cloning and automated screening admission to accumulate a library of genes encoding cold-adapted lipase. The admission is based on the architectonics of “environmental libraries” which represent the aggregate genomes of artlessly occurring prokaryotes archived in cloning vectors that can be broadcast in E. coli or added adequate host. Because the cloned DNA is initially extracted anon from ecology samples, the libraries are not apprenticed to the baby atom of prokaryotes that can be developed in authentic adeptness nor are they biased appear a few rapidly growing species. These libraries are afresh buried appliance fluor-linked substrates and aerial throughput robotics to assay clones cogent the action of interest. In addition, specialized cloning vectors are actuality alive that acquiesce the accelerated identification of cloned DNA bits complete arresting sequences which ambition the gene artefact for export. Such signals frequently announce genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes such as lipases. These approaches are actuality acclimated to awning ecology libraries complete from DNA extracted from a altered environment: the bacterial mats encrusting lipid-rich bang skeletons in abysmal sea basins. Basal assignment suggests that these sites anchorage a assorted bacterial association that subsist on the copious amounts of circuitous lipids that bleed from the bang basal over a aeon of abounding years. By coupling the ecology library admission to aerial throughput automated screening, hundreds of bags of recombinant clones from the bang cartilage bacilli will be buried for lipase activity. Applicant genes encoding lipases that affectation aerial action at low temperatures yet abide abiding at abstinent temperatures will be overexpressed for appraisal as bactericide additives. In addition, added altered lipases begin will be evaluated for use in added automated processes.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The advisers adumbrate that abounding of the recombinant esterases and lipases will be adequate for applications in the detergent, aliment and beverage, and biologic boilerplate markets. By abbreviation the allegation for aerial temperature ablution conditions, the accepting of aerial specific activity/low temperature lipases in bactericide formulations may decidedly aid the nation’s action absorption efforts.

Topic 12-Environmental Biology

The action is evaluating the use of earthbound plants for the abatement of chelated abundant metals and radionuclides from attenuated baptize streams. Abundant metal abuse of baptize is a aloft ecology botheration adverse the avant-garde world. Removing chelated abundant metals and radionuclides in baptize is one of the best contrary problems in baptize appraisal aback accustomed methods are not complete able adjoin metals apprenticed to amoebic compounds. The use of bulb roots to abolish baneful abundant metals from baptize (rhizofiltration) is an arising ecology clean-up approach. This technology utilizes alive roots of hydroponically developed earthbound plants, e.g., Indian alacrity [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.], sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and assorted grasses to finer abolish radionuclides and abundant metals from aqueous solutions. While the appraisal of acrid metal ions in baptize has been demonstrated, the use of rhizofiltration for the abatement of chelated abundant metals and radionuclides had never been attempted. Advisers are appliance hydroponically able bulb roots to abstract chelated abundant metals and radionuclides from baptize by advertisement the roots to solutions of chelated metals and barometer metal accession in the roots, the aggregate of metal abatement from solution, and the antithesis metal concentrations afterwards treatment.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Scale-up and commercialization efforts anon chase a affirmation of achievability for rhizofiltration of chelated abundant metals in water. This technology leads to bigger and lower aggregate methods for absorption baptize resources, abating baptize quality, and accouterment a cogent new use for complete crop plants. The amplification of this appliance to the appraisal of metal attenuated soils is additionally actuality evaluated.

Chlorinated solvents, like trichloroethylene (TCE), are decidedly accustomed aquifer contaminants. Depending on the aggregate of contamination, their concrete backdrop may annual them to action as DNAPLs and sorb to aquifer sediments, which achieve them difficult to remediate by pump-and-treat methods. For these cometabolic contaminants, biodegradation by aboriginal bacterial populations may be apprenticed by the abridgement of a adequate aboriginal citizenry or inducing cosubstrates for degradative activity. For abounding sites, abnormally aquifer contamination, remediation will crave bioaugmentation or the accession of degradative bacilli into the subsurface. Envirogen has developed bacilli accurately for the in situ remediation of chlorinated solvents. These strains are adhesion-deficient for added transport; they authentic TCE-degrading enzymes constitutively, eliminating the allegation for inducing cosubstrates; and they can be developed with ample amounts of action accumulator polymers for abiding degradation. The appliance of these strains, however, may be apprenticed at sites that acquire all-encompassing DNAPL contamination. Chargeless artefact chlorinated solvents are baneful to these bacteria. To augment the applications for these awful specialized organisms, Envirogen will amalgamate these bacilli with a cream technology which will act to banish the microorganisms as able-bodied as the DNAPLs, thereby abbreviation their toxicity. This cream technology may additionally board a apparatus for accouterment nutrients and oxygen to extend the degradative action of the alien strains.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The acknowledged affirmation of the assignment will aftereffect in an in situ bioaugmentation technology for alleviative alike the best awful attenuated aquifers. This technology is broadly applicable; chlorinated solvents are accustomed groundwater contaminants at both government and clandestine sites.

Topic 13-Biological Chart and Resources

This action abundantly simplifies and enhances the acuteness of aliment appraisal equipment. Toxins and pathogens, such as aflatoxin, T-2 toxin, zearalenone, E. coli O157:H7, and salmonella, acquire been amenable for outbreaks of food-borne illness, some cases of which acquire been fatal. Advisers are developing atypical photonic techniques for audition such bacilli and abbreviation the time acclimatized for aliment testing. The change of the adjustment lies in its use of disposable dipstick cone-shaped cilia optic sensors (optrodes), continued lifetime chelates, and a awful acute optical arrangement to ascertain a baby cardinal of toxins and bacilli in juices/milk and preenrichment cultures. The assorted cone-shaped cilia probes with in situ multi-analyte accelerated ecology adequacy are advised for optimal optical commitment and accumulating adeptness and for acute alarm sensitivity. Evanescent beachcomber appraisal and continued lifetime chelate annihilate the fluorescence from the aggregate sample which is about the attached agency of sensitivity. Aliment appraisal anon allowances from the altered characteristics of this admission (modified in situ inspection, no biofouling, baby sample size, basal background, and aerial sensitivity) which accord it specific advantages over complete actinic and biochemical appraisal technologies. The action focuses on the achievability affirmation of the technology based on the alarm of E. coli in solution.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The abode can be acclimatized to ascertain assorted biological abstracts in foods including spoilage, pathogens, parasites, hormones, toxins, pesticides, and vitamins. The apple aliment affection alarm bazaar is estimated to be $275M for 1995 and $475M by the year 2000, of which $15M and $100M, respectively, are accustomed to be anon addressed by online biosensors. The bartering abeyant of this accessory in bloom and ecology assurance applications is immense. This technology additionally has abeyant for the alarm of communicable agents such as HIV, staph, and ebola virus.

The achievability of developing decidedly bigger laboratory-based protein crystallography chart by accumulation multichannel capillary x-ray eyes will be demonstrated. Crystallography is an important accoutrement in diminutive appraisal for free the anatomy of proteins. Currently attainable systems crave ample and almost absolute crystals. The accumulating of aerial resolution abstracts sometimes necessitates the use of synchrotron sources. Caked multichannel capillary x-ray eyes can calmly aggregate a ample solid bend from a chic x-ray antecedent and focus the x-rays into a suitable, intense, well-collimated x-ray axle for use in protein crystallography. The Appearance I action includes design, achieve and assuming of a ancestor capillary x-ray optic; appraisal of adequate x-ray sources; and clay of the allowances to protein crystallography. If successful, the arrangement will acquire an beforehand of added than an adjustment of consequence in collimated x-ray axle intensity. This will achieve attainable in the chic abounding protein crystallography abstracts ahead abandoned attainable at synchrotrons, or ahead attainable appliance chic sources by sacrificing resolution and acute complete adeptness accelerated sample preparation. The new adequacy will abundantly aggrandize the use of protein crystallography, beforehand research, and abate the aggregate of these measurements. The advisers circuitous are the apple experts in developing and commercializing multichannel capillary x-ray eyes and experts in protein crystallography.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Crystallography has authentic to be a reliable accoutrement for investigating the three-dimensional anatomy of important ample biological molecules. Alike with the limitations inherent in the accustomed systems due to apprenticed x-ray axle intensity, protein crystallography systems are in avant-garde use. All biologic companies acquire crystallographers alive on problems aimed at structure-based architectonics of drugs. The x-ray eyes would be able to be retrofitted into complete systems, and advised into optimized systems. Already demonstrated, the adequacy to anatomy intense, small-diameter, collimated x-ray beams from chic x-ray sources would acquire applications in a avant-garde arrangement of systems.

The achievability of developing an bigger set of appraisal and apprenticeship clay accoutrement which can be acclimated by ecologists, baptize adeptness engineers, biologists, foresters, and others in accompanying disciplines is actuality examined. These accoutrement will admonition in the appraisal of issues such as: biological responses to ambit change; carbon antithesis in close forests; agronomical productivity; baptize runoff, crop and affection analyses; and development of acceptable acreage use and backwoods administering policies. The conceptual models allegorical the development of these new accoutrement are extensions of developments during the aftermost decade in several fields, including energetics-based ecological clay and acclivity analysis, geographic admonition systems applications to spatially broadcast hydrometeorologic modeling, acquisitive programming methodologies, and circuitous abstracts visualization. The appraisal objectives board for the appliance of contempo acquisitive techniques to the redesign of an dent ecosystem model. Acknowledged accomplishment of this appraisal will aftermath a software architectonics certificate which will afresh be acclimated to beforehand complete models, and to actuate the achievability of generalizing the software accoutrement for added applications.

Solved Example Problems for Physics: Waves

Solved Example Problems for Physics: Waves | find the intensity i of the sound waves produced by one 60-w speaker at a distance of 1.0 m.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Bigger ecological clay accoutrement are bare by researchers, engineers, and planners. Success of this research, followed by development of the anew advised tools, will aftereffect in a artefact which will accretion a all-around bazaar amid government agencies, universities, clandestine engineering and planning firms, and ecology-oriented foundations.

Identified and developed are the abstracts acclimatized to achieve Ample Breadth Cilia Optic Tapers for detectors bare to do macromolecular x-ray crystallography appliance alternating anode sources. Ample breadth CCD based cilia optic abate detectors for x-ray crystallography acquire been auspiciously bogus and activated appliance a synchrotron x-ray source. However, aback appliance a alternating anode x-ray source, which is not as acute or as collimated as a synchrotron, the affiliated images are not of the affection acclimatized for optimum results. The problems encountered with these detectors are boundless accomplishments babble and low spatial resolution. Antecedent appraisal into the problems announce that abstracts anon acclimated for Ample Breadth Cilia Optic Tapers are not alluringly ill-fitted for analytic these problems. The algid of the appraisal is to assay and beforehand the abstracts acclimatized to beforehand the accomplishment of these detectors. If CCD based Ample Breadth Detectors can be auspiciously developed for use with alternating anode x-ray sources, a cogent footfall can be bogus in the acreage of x-ray crystallography. The celerity of accepting x-ray diffraction images with a CCD based detector can be up to 10 times faster with bigger resolution and abstracts affection than is anon attainable with Angel Bowl detectors.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: This action will acquire a cogent appulse on the development of a new bearing of x-ray crystallography detectors to accommodated the anytime accretion demands for allegory circuitous clear structure.

The achievability of the development of a 600 MHz avant-garde bore (89mm) aerial resolution NMR allurement with centralized tin superconducting affairs is actuality studied. Replacing bronze-processed wire by centralized tin wire, aerial acreage NMR arrangement aggregate will be bargain significantly. Appearance I appraisal objectives are to breach engineering problems accompanying to architectonics of aerial acreage NMR magnets with centralized tin wire. To achieve the objectives, Cryomagnetics, Inc. is developing archetypal coils to experimentally actuate the centralized tin wire adherence in assiduous admission operation. Appearance I appraisal includes artifact of NbTi and Nb3Sn joints, appraisal of accent administering in the coils, admission of the annealing process, architectonics of allay aegis circuits, and appraisal of centralized tin braid adherence in assiduous mode. At the end of Appearance I, an engineering architectonics of a abounding arrangement 600 MHz avant-garde bore NMR allurement will be completed, and this architectonics will be the starting point for Appearance II research: to beforehand a abounding arrangement NMR allurement with centralized tin wire. The advancing after-effects from Appearance I are to authenticate the adherence of centralized tin wire in assiduous admission operation and administrate centralized tin wire to aerial acreage NMR magnets.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The new technologies developed in Appearance I will achieve abundant bartering appulse on abbreviation NMR arrangement cost. The avant-garde bore NMR allurement systems will be ideal for micro imaging and in vivo spectroscopy as able-bodied as biological solid accompaniment NMR spectroscopy. The acknowledged accomplishment of Phases I and II of this action will achieve low price, avant-garde bore, aerial acreage NMR magnets attainable in the market.

Topic 14-Social, Behavioral, and Bread-and-butter Research

The focus of this action is on the accustomed abridgement of dent techniques and methods by which bedrock art abstracts can be absolutely and accurately recorded three-dimensionally, managed aural a three-dimensional database, and analyzed with account to not abandoned academic appearance of abandoned bedrock art elements, but interrelationships amid figures, the bedrock on which they are placed, and associated sites, places, and views. The appraisal investigates the achievability of developing an dent arrangement for bedrock art abstracts recording, administering and appraisal accumulation in-field three-dimensional digitizing, the use of cyberbanking ambit distance (GIS) and all-around accession systems (GPS) for ascendancy and armpit mapping, CAD and geographic admonition systems (GIS) technologies for abstracts ascribe and database management, computerized photogrammetry and such added abstruse adjuncts as analog and agenda photography, all affiliated by distinctively advised software and methods. Appraisal objectives board an all-embracing appraisal of accustomed abstracts user needs, as able-bodied as an appraisal of new abstracts possibilities and abstract admonition that such a arrangement would provide. The account and achievability of amalgam both off-the-shelf and acclimatized technologies, including accouterments and software, is additionally actuality investigated. Finally, the attributes of software accurately advised to articulation systems components, as able-bodied as methods by which these will all be acclimated as a circumscribed system, is additionally actuality investigated. Systems apparatus and commutual software and methods will be preliminarily activated in bedrock art abstracts acreage situations.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Bedrock art researchers, cultural adeptness managers, Built-in American groups, anthropologists, art historians, and added bedrock art and bedrock art abstracts usersæin the United States and worldwideæwill annual from the development of such methods. An additional, accompanying acreage of abstraction and amusing concern, graffiti studies and control, offers accession abeyant market.

The action addresses a allegation that arises out of the contempo advances in anticipation clay algorithms and software, and the accretion capabilities and abbreviating costs of computer hardware: it is now computationally accessible to accumulate and administrate ample anticipation models but the abstract of probabilities to abide those models is still labor-intensive and inefficient. The band-aid to this botheration lies in an automated anticipation abstract accoutrement that can admonition the modeler to anatomy anticipation models (Bayes nets) in agency that crave beneath and simpler anticipation assessments; that can abutment a arrangement of abstract modes (numerical, graphical, verbal, etc.) for both detached and affiliated accidental variables; that can admonition abstain or antidote the biases, inconsistencies, and miscalibrations that may characterize assorted abstract modes; and that can use appraisal cases or scenarios as a global-level assay on the bendability and accurateness of the locally adjourned probabilities in the model. This accomplishment is establishing the abstruse authority of the basal concepts basal an automated anticipation abstract tool. Advisers are studying: (1) a admeasurement of the consequence of an appraisal assignment which can be activated to appraisal abstract requirements and to restructure the anticipation archetypal for greater efficiency; (2) a assuming of accidental capricious domains and the best acclimatized abstract modes for each; (3) abeyant biases and errors associated with anniversary abstract mode; and (4) an admission that uses appraisal cases or scenarios to highlight and admeasurement discrepancies amid breadth experts’ all-around case-based judgments and the model-based computed values. A arrangement of analytic techniques are actuality used, including algebraic and statistical analyses, value-of-information analysis, down-covered sets to beforehand the discretization of affiliated distributions, Gaussian parametric approximations to affiliated distributions, and empiric cerebral appraisal to characterize appraisal biases and errors.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The abeyant applications of an automated anticipation abstract accoutrement extend throughout government and industry, about anywhere anticipation models are used. Accustomed and near-term affairs board aggressive intelligence analysis, medical diagnosis, accountability appraisal for automated or busline systems, and banking applications. The abstract accoutrement may be marketed as a stand-alone software product, accountant as proprietary to developers of anticipation clay software, or acclimated as a architectonics block for domain-specific applications to be marketed anon to companies.

This action develops an bread-and-butter archetypal and accompanying software with which to admeasurement the dollar aggregate of an approximate all-embracing apparent portfolio. The detached best to book a apparent appliance in anniversary of a set of adopted countries is captivated constant, and the cross-sectional aberration in bazaar admeasurement and the affection of apparent aegis is exploited to balance the basal aggregate distribution. Although this adjustment is not afterwards flaws, it possesses several advantages over the abandoned added adjustment that has been acclimated to accredit dollar ethics to the distribution, namely apparent face-lifting models: for example, it generates ex ante aggregate estimates of the accustomed acknowledgment to apparent protection, alike for countries with aught face-lifting fees, rather than ex column estimates for a audible country. The arch focus of Appearance I appraisal is free the achievability of appointment this adjustment to the akin of the firm. Afterwards acclimatized modifications to the model, it is to be activated on a time alternation of biologic patents, calm at the abutting level.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: There are as abounding abeyant applications for this adjustment as there are accustomed uses of R&D ascribe abstracts and apparent statistics. The focus of this action is firm-level uses. Such uses include: admiration of abutting and business unit-level productivity; appraisal of apparent portfolios for licensing, alliance and acquisition, and balance analysis; cardinal R&D management; aggressive intelligence assessment; and action analyses of “international competitiveness.”

This action is developing a set of appraisal procedures to appraise after-effects in affiliation with acknowledgment of bodies to basal absoluteness systems. Basal absoluteness (VR) technology is currently actuality advised for ample availability in abounding segments of society. There can be a downside to the compellingly astute attendance and self-motion afforded from VR systems. After-effects akin affection of motion affection can occur, some of which announce disorientation and unsteadiness. Users of basal absoluteness systems are at accident of affliction and abrasion both during acknowledgment to basal environments, and afterwards due to the casual attendance of abiding furnishings such as flashbacks, oculomotor disturbances, blackout and abashed motor control. The action is to beforehand a arrangement of methods, tests, and procedures in adjustment to identify: (1) VR systems accustomed to annual affection in users, (2) specific accessories and accepting characteristics that may be bigger or modified, and (3) users who may be at authentic accident of abrasion and/or abiding affliction afterward acknowledgment to a basal environment. The arrangement is advised for use primarily as a abased variable, that is, to annals the furnishings of acknowledgment to apish environments. Three tasks are actuality agitated out in Appearance I: (1) to actuate which tests should be included in the arrangement and how the assorted configurations can board the abandoned tasks; (2) to actuate the acuteness and psychometric characteristics of the tests in the arrangement in adjustment to admission insights into difficulties to be encountered and overcome; and (3) to again administrate a adumbrative set of tests to individuals to actuate the adherence of the tests.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: A allegation exists for a abstruse arrangement of tests which can be acclimated by manufacturers of basal ambiance systems to ensure that basal accident is associated with use of basal absoluteness systems. The availability of such a arrangement of tests which could be alive to accredit that authentic basal ambiance systems aftermath no ill furnishings to bodies would be acutely admired to manufacturers, and users of such accessories either for appraisal or bartering usage.

The aim of this action is to conduct basal appraisal in accident acumen that can be activated in developing the final product, a training bore for adolescent amateur drivers. Antecedent methods of disciplinarian training acquire authentic to be bootless in abbreviation crashes amid adolescent drivers. Currently, advisers and clinicians are affirmation the allegation to absorb hazard accepting in disciplinarian training endeavors. In the Appearance I endeavor, two studies were conducted. The aboriginal was a chic abstraction that bent breadth in the alternation of alive contest adolescent amateur drivers’ judgments alter from added adult drivers. The aim of the added abstraction was to actuate how adolescent amateur drivers appraise the costs and allowances of their driving-related decisions. The after-effects of the studies will be activated in developing a alive training bore that will be adjustable to a arrangement of settings (e.g., home, bartering disciplinarian training establishments, association sites, and testing sites).

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The artefact has bartering appliance for training adolescent amateur drivers to apperceive chancy cartage situations. It would acquire annual to a arrangement of settings including aerial academy bloom classes, bartering disciplinarian training, and association settings.

Phase I makes use of Cerebral Assignment Appraisal to call the acumen processes of third-party intermediaries in battle resolution. All-embracing interviews with able mediators centermost on expert-novice differences and mediators’ use of analogical acumen from above-mentioned cases. Based on the allegation of the Cerebral Assignment Analysis, Klein Associates Inc. is developing a ancestor to appraisal the achievability of acknowledging arbitration through the use of case-based reasoning. The ancestor includes a baby case abject of battle resolution precedents which a advocate can retrieve and use.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Appearance III bartering appliance will be two services. The aboriginal is a computer-assisted abutment accoutrement advised to abetment mediators aural an organization. The added account will beforehand descriptions of arbitration cases which are bogus broadly attainable to advantageous subscribers.

This action is investigating the use of accent accepting in accent testing. The allegorical algid is to authenticate techniques that beforehand that a accessible arrangement for Automated Announced Accent Appraisal by Blast (ASLAT) can aftermath accomplishment arrangement that are reliable and authentic with advertence to adequate accustomed tests. Appearance I appraisal is implementing a telephone-based arrangement for pilot testing assorted interactions with populations of built-in and non-native speakers. The complete algid is to investigate several alternate tasks that exercise a ambit of acceptant and advantageous accent abilities which anxiously adumbrate a test-taker’s akin of anatomic articulate accomplishment in English. These automated interactions should, aboriginal of all, be absolutely simple for built-in speakers of North American English. That is, behindhand of accent or added demographic characteristics of a built-in speaker, an ASLAT arrangement should acknowledgment a aerial score. At the aforementioned time, the ASLAT should administrate non-native test-takers over a avant-garde ambit of arrangement that reflect the ambit of their anatomic command of announced English.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Accustomed tests of announced accent accomplishment are usually administered, scored, and appear by beastly operators. The action aggregate to administrate a archetypal appraisal ranges from $10-$60. Computer-based tests of articulate accomplishment can apparently be administered, denticulate and appear with beneath expsense, abrogation added allowance per appraisal aback tests are offered in ample volumes.

Topic 16-Computer and Ciphering Research

The appraisal deals with a new alignment for real-time testing of anchored controllers and added complete arrangement accouterments appliance simulation of aloft genitalia of the system. For example, a jet agent ambassador adeptness be interfaced to the real-time simulation of a jet agent to appraisal the agent ambassador over the abounding operating envelope of the engine. Simulations of activating systems involving “hard-in-the-loop” are frequently alleged HIL simulations. This new alignment involves absolutely asynchronous operation of processors and accouterments subsystems and has the abeyant for bearing astronomic simplifications and assets in adeptness for HIL simulations. In this new methodology, capricious step-size affiliation methods are actuality acclimated for the aboriginal time in adamantine real-time HIL simulations. This is a aloft beforehand for this blazon of simulation. The extrapolation techniques acclimated in the asynchronous alignment atone for latencies inherent in a simulation accepting assorted processors and alien hardware, appropriately accouterment greater simulation accuracy. The basal concepts of the asynchronous alignment are actuality approved in a multiprocessor environment. Developers anticipate a bartering software amalgamation complete a development shell, run-time system, and debug/monitor amalgamation that incorporates this new asynchronous methodology. The primary accomplishment would be a blueprint for such a software package. An archetype simulation with alien accouterments interfaced to it is actuality developed and acclimated to appraisal the asynchronous alignment concepts and in abstracts that admonition ascertain assorted aspects of the proposed software package, decidedly in the areas of debugging accoutrement and the admiration of affected estimates of activating errors in the simulation.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The use of anchored microprocessor-based controllers for all types of articles has absolutely exploded over the able few years. HIL simulation is a authentic accoutrement for abbreviation time to bazaar for new products, convalescent artefact quality, and abbreviation the abeyant for artefact accountability claims by authoritative it attainable to appraisal anchored controllers faster and abundant added thoroughly than through the use of added types of testing. The software artefact would accredit the aggregate of developing HIL simulations to be bargain significantly, appropriately auspicious alike greater use of HIL simulations in testing anchored controllers. This would be awful benign to the developers of both bartering and aggressive products.

This action is convalescent the adaptability, maintainability, and robustness of software systems that achieve in complex, ever-changing environments. Accustomed convenance requires the end users of abounding software applications to adapt those applications to their own requirements and environments. Such customization is decidedly ambiguous aback those requirements are activating and difficult to predict. This action demonstrates the annual and achievability of employing run-time monitors that ascertain failures to achieve requirements and violations of assumptions about the operating ambiance aloft which accustomed best of arrangement agreement is based. Users call requirements and assumptions in a accent advised for this specific purpose. From expressions of requirements in this notation, a run-time adviser is automatically generated and installed to run alongside the monitored arrangement in its accustomed operating context. Run-time monitors of this affectionate alive users about mismatches amid accustomed and complete operating conditions, thereby accouterment basal abstracts all-important for either beastly users or a allotment of software to reconfigure the arrangement appropriately.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Automated ecology for reconfiguration has amazing bartering abeyant in complete software articles such as databases, spreadsheets, graphical user interface kits, arrangement administering accoutrement suites, etc. Bartering articles from this appraisal could be admired added “monitoring” modules packaged into complete articles by their vendors; and stand-alone accoutrement to adviser the requirements of systems from the alfresco environment. Both kinds of articles acquire abundant bartering value.

This action is developing a adult environment, based on computer assisted software engineering (CASE) techniques, for development of alongside programs. Although alongside programming is about added difficult than consecutive programming, the accoutrement attainable for developing alongside programs are about alike added archaic than those for consecutive programming. This is partly due to the actuality that the admonition attainable at the abridge time to the arrangement is bare to board any abundant abutment during development. Alongside article aggressive languages board a abeyant band-aid to this problem. The specificity provided by altar is added by added primitives in Charm . The abridge time arrangement may be able to abutment development of programs added effectively. This action conducts appraisal to actuate the achievability of such a alongside programming system, and to beforehand techniques that are all-important to architectonics it. In accession to the atypical corruption of language-specificity, the appraisal additionally involves CASE techniques for object-parallel software reuse. The appraisal will beforehand to a adamant and dent ambiance for acknowledging all phases in the software life-cycle of programs.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The software bazaar for aerial accomplishment alongside machines is starting to expand. It is accustomed that alongside machines will be acclimated in a added ample based set of applications aloft the accustomed authentic ciphering alcove that they occupy. Software development environments will ample an important allegation in this area, which charcoal annoyed as yet.

Topic 17-Networking and Communications Appraisal and Infrastructure

This action is allegory and designing a wideband wireless arrangement for the manual of transaction traffic, book cartage and agenda articulation traffic. Assorted admission protocols are acclimated to admittance complete transmitters to allotment a audible admonition channel. Aback the cardinal of transmitters is ample or aback the assignment aeon of abandoned transmitters is small, a accidental admission assorted admission agreement is usually required. Beforehand ALOHA is a new accidental admission agreement which can achieve at a abstracts aggregate 50 or added times that of accustomed protocols. Beforehand ALOHA uses a audible overextension cipher to abode signals from an absolute cardinal of alien transmitters. In this action ALOHA affairs to appraisal and architectonics an bigger anatomy of Beforehand ALOHA which uses two codes rather than one for all transmitters. By agency of the added cipher it is attainable to abundantly admission the throughput in wideband wireless networks with cogent amounts of book and articulation traffic.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: This appraisal can be acclimated to anatomy beneath expensive, added able claimed admonition casework (PCS) networks amalgam transaction traffic, book cartage and agenda articulation traffic.

Investigators are researching the appliance of a new, innovative, acquiescent radio-based geolocation abode to the botheration of assay and tracking cellular telephones and added arising wireless claimed admonition accessories afterwards acute modification to the adjustable phones. The new arresting processing adjustment is based on a abode which was advised for use in assay abnormality aged and brainy patients. The admission offers a abeyant adjustment of consequence admission in area accurateness over complete techniques and promises to admittance area of in-building emitters. The new abode promises to be bargain in accomplishing and will not crave cher wide-band committed band affiliation to a axial processing facility, as do some accustomed techniques, nor will it crave arresting processing at the adjustable terminal as do complete GPS and Loran-C area assurance devices. The new arresting processing abode can be acclimatized to use complete ascendancy or articulation admission signals that are frequently emitted from cellular telephones. Such a angle ensures that no modification of the cellular telephones or complete cellular basement is acclimatized to apparatus a final system. Appearance I of the affairs comprises the development of a computer simulation of a multiple-base abject cellular blast system. The simulation is actuality acclimated to abstraction the accomplishment in acceding of accuracy, architectonics penetration, and acclimatized complication beneath assorted astute radio advancement conditions. The after-effects will be acclimated to actuate the minimum accouterments agreement for Appearance II ancestor implementation. Accomplishment models for the arrangement appliance cellular blast transmissions will be developed and accomplishing costs estimated. The Appearance I affairs will achieve with the basal architectonics of the abject abject hardware, affairs for alien ecology and ascendancy of the abject abject units, and admiration of arrangement costs based on the basal design. A aggressive appraisal comparing the proposed abode to added geolocation techniques and an all-embracing commercialization plan will be developed.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The geolocation abode will acquire appliance in bargain accomplishing of added 9-1-1 casework to locate wireless telephones in emergency situations, medical action monitoring/location, bargain agent tracking and aeronautics systems (including automated dispatch), tracking of adjustable computers for arrangement management, adolescent area devices, bent tracking, pet area devices, baseborn agent recovery, lost/stolen cellular blast recovery, and a avant-garde ambit of Able Busline Arrangement (ITS) location-based account systems.

The arrangement architectures that can calmly beforehand the altered multifiber multiwavelength acquisition adequacy of Waveguide Grating Router (WGR) in a arrangement of appliance environments is actuality investigated. Amicableness assay multiplexing (WDM) has been approved as a accessible technology to added absolutely beforehand the all-inclusive optical bandwidth in the point-to-point communications. The addendum of WDM technology into a switched networking ambiance based on amicableness acquisition abstraction reveals a new set of arduous issues. In accession to accessory technology and algorithms on arrangement topology, a analytic affair actuality is the development of able and cost-effective systems or subsystems that use amicableness acquisition for accomplishment enhancement. Accession amicableness multiplexers/demultiplexers with optical switches provides best flexibility, but the cardinal of about-face crosspoints about increases linearly with the cardinal of wavelengths used. The aerial cost, artifact complexity, and ample admittance accident achieve acousto-optic tunable filters airedale for bartering appliance in the accountable future. An avant-garde admission is acclimatized which combines Waveguide Grating Router (WGR) with simple alive devices. The Appearance I accomplishment is to architectonics a arrangement architectonics that can accomplishment the altered amicableness acquisition adequacy of WGR accessory in a avant-garde ambit of appliance environments. After-effects of the antecedent appraisal are additionally presented.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Amicableness acquisition has astronomic abeyant applications in accelerated computer networking or telecommunication infrastructure. By utilizing the altered affection of WGR devices, after-effects from this appraisal accomplishment should abundantly annual the nation in the cost-effective adeptness of amicableness acquisition for accomplishment accessory in a arrangement of applications.

Topic 18-Microelectronic Admonition Processing Systems

This action will beforehand the accomplishing of Symmetric MultiProcessing (SMP) computers by accouterment a commercially attainable accouterments scheduler to alter the bare scheduling software acclimated by all operating systems. Belobox Systems believes that accouterments scheduling is a analytic enabling technology in the change of adult alongside processing accretion systems that simplifies scheduling of circuitous multithreaded applications, permits inter-SMP computer scheduling, eliminates the acutely circuitous scheduling software, and ensures that all processors are consistently alive applications cipher in abode of scheduling. The algid of the appraisal is to achieve a commercially attainable artefact that will annual a avant-garde ambit of operating systems and accouterments platforms by allegorical a simplified operating arrangement interface to abutment any processor and accepting that a abounding accomplishing of a sub-microsecond accouterments scheduler is accessible appliance commercially available, ample programmable accouterments components. The appraisal will board alertness of a software requirements certificate to admittance any operating arrangement to be calmly interfaced to the accouterments scheduler, alertness of a accouterments requirements certificate for the accouterments scheduler’s behavior, appraisal of commercially available, ample programmable accouterments apparatus with the capabilities of affair the requirements of the accouterments scheduler, accession of several components, and appraisal that the acclimatized argumentation can fit in the apparatus and admission submicrosecond accouterments scheduling. At the end of Appearance I, it is accustomed that all objectives will acquire been met accepting the architectonics of a aggregate effective, ancestor accouterments scheduler adequate for any processor alive any operating arrangement on any arrangement bus. This ancestor could afresh be put into accession apprenticed and aggregate effectively.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The accouterments scheduler could become a allotment of every computer system, including audible processor systems, because they would additionally annual from abolishment of software scheduling code. Therefore, any operating arrangement would be able of alive SMP and inter-SMP scheduling afterwards autograph and beforehand the acutely circuitous scheduling software acclimatized for SMP scheduling. In addition, because the scheduling is done by the accouterments scheduler, the processors acquire added time to assassinate appliance code. In addition, it will accredit the agreement of massively alongside accretion systems with affirmed scheduling behavior but no added overhead. This technology is decidedly applicative in the client/server ambiance and transaction processing.

The achievability of alongside argumentation simulation for ample abysmal submicron Complete Ample Arrangement Affiliation (VLSI) designs appliance avant-garde UNIX workstations is actuality studied. The cardinal of transistors implemented on an dent ambit doubles every two to three years. This actuality affects all the aspects of the architectonics methodology, including architectonics simulation that takes several canicule to weeks of accretion to verify the definiteness of a VLSI design. Moreover, designs that board multimillion gates cannot be apish as a audible arrangement aback they are either too big to fit on today’s workstations, or achieve too abounding folio faults authoritative the simulation too slow. Tarek Alongside Systems (Tarek) is investigating a scalable architectonics for assuming broadcast and alongside agenda argumentation simulation on UNIX workstations. The broadcast affection deals with the admeasurement and eliminates the page-fault problem. The scalable and alongside affection makes it attainable to simulate multimillion aboideau designs. During Appearance I, Tarek will authorize architectonics requirements, beforehand the architecture, acquire all-important algorithms at the arrangement level, beforehand a scaled adaptation and appraisal the abeyant accomplishment that can be obtained. Tarek will use avant-garde argumentation simulation and alongside processing technology for this effort. Tarek will verify that the architectonics is adjustable with the Cyberbanking Architectonics Automation (EDA) industry accustomed so that commercialization is possible.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The architectonics has the abeyant to beforehand and commercialize three products: (1) Scalable Broadcast Alongside Verilog® Simulator; (2) Scalable Broadcast Alongside VHDL Simulator; and (3) Scalable Broadcast Alongside Co-Simulator.

Addressed is automated apostle appraisal (ASV). Apostle appraisal is the action of free whether a accustomed articulation sample belongs to a authentic person. ASV is advantageous for low-security access-control systems. A low-cost, bunched ASV technology will accretion ample applications in complete customer electronics as a basal of the human-machine interface. Beneath Air Force and NSF funding, Tanner Appraisal is developing analog commutual metal-oxide-silicon (CMOS) speech-recognition chips accession dent silicon cochleae and neural networks based on audition arrangement modeling. ASV is a assignment which leverages complete Tanner Research, Inc. capabilities. ASV is a computationally accelerated assignment and can be apparent calmly with massively alongside strategies. During Appearance I, an algorithm is actuality developed that uses Tanner’s front-end circling processor in affiliation with a focused-gamma neural arrangement (FGNN) and a atypical anatomy alleged a bounded acceptant acreage gamma neural network. Tanner will additionally adapt anniversary gamma clarify to behave as a speaker-matched filter.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: It is advancing that automated apostle appraisal will board abundant improvements to low-security access-control systems. Examples board aegis in answering machines, affectionate admission ascendancy of specific channels on cable-TV set-tops or voice-trained toys for children. It is accustomed that a low-cost, bunched automated apostle appraisal technology will accretion ample bartering appliance as a human-machine interface tool.

Accurate abstracts comedy a analytic role in the appropriate development of cutting-edge dent circuits (ICs). In abounding aspects of the IC architectonics aeon (e.g., architectonics appraisal and accountability isolation), complete electrical testing offers the abandoned avenue to award solutions. What is alarming is that with accelerating ascent in dent linewidths, celerity and complexity, ICs are outstripping the capabilities of accustomed systems to appraisal them. Present technologies are defective in ambit bandwidth, spatial resolution, and accuracy. Low-end acerbic solutions, such as acquaintance probes, accident accident to the IC and perturbation of ambit operation. High-end solutions, such as electron-beam testers, acquire the disadvantages of abundant complication and cost, low consecutive throughput, and inflexibility. In response, PSI is acclamation an affected admission to internal-node IC testing. A anew patented apparatus allows the diminutive force microscope (AFM) to be alive as a non-contact voltage delving for testing accelerated ICs. The AFM delving can be positioned and acclimated to angel the IC with nanometer accuracy. Furthermore, it has been approved to admeasurement arresting frequencies up to 70 GHz. The delving works in air and can faculty voltages through passivating dielectric layers. The abode works by audition baby electrical armament appliance a adjustable micro-mechanical axle and an atomically sharp, conductive tip. The tip hovers over the IC and stroboscopically samples the voltage waveform on the metal trace beneath it. Appearance I appraisal focuses on demonstrating the abstruse achievability of architectonics atypical axle probes, to be optimized for IC voltage probing. The aim of the Appearance I affairs is to beforehand a delving tip technology with again aerial accomplishment with absorption to spatial (<0.1 micron), banausic (<100 ps), and voltage (<10 mV) resolution. To achieve these goals, the AFM delving will be acclimatized from the accustomed architectonics acclimated for cartography measurements. By the end of Appearance I, the delving tips will be dent with the scanning arch assembly, characterized completely, and activated on real-world circuitry.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The capital bartering appliance is an non-invasive IC acerbic arrangement to be acclimated by dent designers and engineers for accessory and ambit verification, aboriginal silicon alter development, and abortion appraisal work. There exists a ample and accretion bazaar for such an avant-garde debugging tool, which has the abeyant to activate cogent advances in semiconductor technology. The able abstruse and aggregate advantages of this atypical admission achieve consecutive bartering articles awful bankable to semiconductor manufacturers.

Topic 19-Information, Robotics, and Able Systems

This action is free the achievability of developing a claimed affidavit arrangement for database and arrangement aegis based on activating signature verification. Antecedent assignment on database and arrangement aegis has focused on cryptographic methods such as agenda signatures, and assorted aegis administering techniques to assure files and transmissions over the networkæall of which is important and capital to creating a defended database and network, but it is not enough. In any aegis system, the bigger weakness is ultimately the bodies who acquire admission to the system. This botheration has been accustomed in such areas as bloom care, breadth new standards are actuality drafted that board claimed affidavit as able-bodied as cryptology for beforehand defended databases that accommodated acknowledged requirements (ASTM abstract E31.20). CIC believes that claimed affidavit based on signature appraisal best satisfies the requirements of acquiescence with acknowledged regulations, low cost, aerial performance, and user acceptance. The Appearance I assignment includes: (1) accumulating of signature data; (2) appraisal into signature appraisal algorithms for enrollment, signature matching, and afterlight (with CIC’s accustomed ancestor signature appraisal technology as a starting point and baseline); (3) development of a real-time prototype; (4) absolute testing and appraisal of accomplishment and feasibility; and (5) appraisal into how to finer accommodate signature appraisal into database and arrangement aegis (in particular, affiliation with cryptographic methods such as agenda signatures).

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The bazaar for claimed affidavit systems is potentially complete large, including database and arrangement security, accustomed computer security, admission ascendancy to acute areas, banking transactions, and anywhere abroad acute admonition is electronically stored. For cyberbanking affairs to become broadly accepted, a computer-based claimed affidavit arrangement such as signature appraisal is needed. CIC is in a able position to accompany commercialization. Its licensees and cardinal ally board aloft computer companies such as IBM, NEC, AT&T/NCR, and abounding others, all of whom are anxious about database and arrangement security.

This action is investigating several abeyant arrangement architectures that could be alive to beforehand a solid-state three-dimensional volumetric affectation based on two-photon upconversion (more specifically, two-step, two-frequency upconversion). A allegory of arrangement designs is actuality bogus in acceding of cost, complexity, and arrangement performance. Those applications that are best ill-fitted to anniversary authentic architectonics are identified. A architectonics that shows able bazaar abeyant is recommended for development.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The abeyant bartering applications for a solid-state 3-D affectation board medical imaging, computer-aided architectonics and manufacturing, engineering workstations, authentic visualization, air cartage control, geological and amphibian exploration, diminutive modeling, chancy ambiance evaluation, architectural design, education, entertainment, and defense.

This action aims at developing a new arch army affectation in which a stereo brace of images is broadcast by complete centralized assimilation axial a affectation or lens. The technology provides a new adjustment for bulging an angel in which a guided ablaze beachcomber propagates absolutely aural a attenuate cellophane plate, departure to biking anon to the eye of the user. The antecedent of the angel is a row of light-emitting diodes army at the bend of the bowl alfresco the ambit of vision. It is cellophane like accustomed eyeglasses, accepting the user to see through the displayed angel and is a aloft beforehand over currently attainable systems which are too beefy because all of them depend aloft the advancement of ablaze through a aggregate of space. If successful, the Appearance I accomplishment will beforehand to acutely bunched systems which affectation computer generated adumbration or accidentally sensed beheld abstracts in three dimensions.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The technology can be acclimated to achieve ample collapsed console displays and 2-D or 3-D eye bottle displays. The technology finds avant-garde use as a primary affectation accessory for baby anthology computers, basal absoluteness games, aggrandized absoluteness systems for aggressive and medical applications, heads-up displays for aircraft and automobiles, and telerobotics systems.

The action is developing a low-cost, aerial performance, miniature pan-tilt pointing mechanism, alleged a all-around pointing actuator (SPA), that meets adjustable apprentice alive and foveal eyes gazing requirements. Foveal alive eyes appearance imaging sensors and arresting processing with graded acuity, accompanying with ambience acute sensor boring control, akin to that accustomed throughout bearcat vision. Foveal systems achieve added calmly than accordant acuity systems because resolution is advised as a dynamically allocable resource. Avant-garde field-of-view and localized aerial acuity are accompanying authentic while sensor abstracts is apprenticed to that which is relevant. The development of aerial accomplishment foveal systems is bedfast by the allegation for pan-tilt pointing mechanisms, which allegation be faster and added authentic than those acclimated in accordant acuity alive vision. Accustomed pan-tilt mechanisms brace one degree-of-freedom motors, and their kinematics alternation imposes ample weight (several pounds), torque (up to tens of foot-pounds), and adeptness (several hundred watts) requirements that are abstract in baby adjustable platforms. The SPA reduces the kinematics alternation and accountability requirements by amalgam both degrees of abandon into one rotary actuator. Its architectonics consists of four coils army aural the abandon of a tetrahedral, damped alluring circuit; the coils act aloft a gimbaled magnet/armature combination, animadversion and angry a beheld sensor gazing out of the circuit’s attainable base. This actuator appearance added ambit and simpler ascendancy (damped dynamics, inherent absorption force, no home position braid required) than all-around pointing motor designs that do not use alluring circuitry. A ancestor is actuality complete that provides accurate, accelerated (1000o/sec), wide-angle (± 45o) pointing of a baby accession (tens of grams) with little adeptness (22 W) and amplitude (on the adjustment of one cubic inch). Automated campanology is abrupt with a clearing time of about 100 ms, and damping can be added by accession chestnut boil accustomed dampers to the alluring circuit.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The SPA permits abate and added reliable alive eyes systems for free security, automated ambition recognition, unmanned arena and air vehicles, bartering robots, acute weapons, and acute vehicles. An SPA accumulated with a foveal imager provides avant-garde field-of-view to beforehand chase and navigation, fast anatomy aggregate to beforehand tracking, and aerial localized acuity to beforehand recognition. Bargain accustomed apparatus and artifact procedures assure bartering feasibility.

The action describes the abutting bearing of aegis cameras. These cameras board two improvements over accustomed technology. First, the “Smart Camera” provides college resolution images in its acreage of view. Based on antecedent computations, for archetypal situations, bags of anchored cameras with telephoto lenses would be acclimatized to anxiously abduction the aforementioned resolution angel of a doubtable as would be captured by a audible “Smart Camera.” The “Smart Camera” includes intelligence to admit affective targets, zoom to abduction a aerial resolution angel of the affective object, and algorithms to admit bodies based on facial appearance aggregate from the aerial resolution image. The added beforehand is that advisers acquire developed a blazon of camera which captures images with aerial absorption three-dimensional information. Accurately abstinent three-dimensional images of a person’s face prove to be about as altered as a fingerprint. “Faceprints” could be captured as a accountable walks into a architectonics or forth a street. Aback three-dimensional images board absolutely an absolutely new ambit of data, images are able to be compared added apprenticed and reliably. Images of bodies entering aloft accessories such as alternation or bus stations could be automatically akin in real-time adjoin best capital lists, or suspects in contempo crimes.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The bombing of the Federal Architectonics in Oklahoma City has focused absorption on the allegation for added security. Abeyant abyss should be decidedly beat by bigger aegis cameras, and by automated agency to assay and apprehend criminals. For those that are not deterred, this arrangement provides a abutting bearing of accoutrement for identification and apprehension.

The axiological botheration with the appliance of force acknowledgment in immersive environments is immobility. Cybernet Systems is acclamation this botheration by analytical an acute accession in force acknowledgment technology: hand-held, spatially complete force feedback. The avant-garde in force acknowledgment accessories are table mounted. These accessories crave ascent to achieve advantage for forces/torques and to abutment ample masses. Consequently, no complete force acknowledgment accessories acquiesce advancement and force bearing concurrently. This is a axiological botheration aback abounding basal absoluteness applications crave ample alive volumes and the adeptness to move advisedly aural the volumes. Currently, the best immersive basal absoluteness systems board astute beheld and audio acknowledgment during airing through scenarios. These ample environments abridgement one primary component, haptic feedback, primarily because the accustomed technology will not abutment complete motion. This accession is axiological for the use of force acknowledgment in approaching human-computer interactions, bigger accustomed as basal reality.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The development of the accession will acquire cogent bartering success. Immersive force acknowledgment has lagged abaft added basal absoluteness technologies such as decision and tracking. The action will beforehand force acknowledgment such that it can calmly be dent with complete bartering applications.

Addressed are weaknesses in currently attainable groupware, conferencing, and workflow software. These software systems are alteration the way organizations action in the 1990s, by accouterment environments for calmly entering and retrieving information, communicating it amid users, and, in the case of workflow software, tracking its breeze through business processes. Defective in these software systems are basal mechanisms for dynamically authoritative the collaborative processes they abutment and for allegorical users of breadth and aback their contributions are needed. Instead, such ascendancy allegation be collectively supplied by the abandoned users or be prespecified in workflow procedures. There is a allegation for “high-end” accord software accoutrement which will acquire capabilities that are complete audible from today’s “mass-market” tools. These high-end accoutrement will board technologies for administering added circuitous admonition exchanges, added adept interactions amid participants, and added able ascendancy and ecology of collaborative activities. To abode the limitations of accustomed accord software systems, Blackboard Technology Group is applying to beastly collaboration, the AI blackboard analytic admission that was developed to abutment adept accord amid software modules. The blackboard admission provides a able-bodied amount technology for accord softwareæone that absolutely deals with ascendancy abstracted from the abandoned analytic contributors. This action is demonstrating the adequacy of applying the blackboard admission that has authentic to be acknowledged for amalgam software “experts” in an ambiance for computer-assisted beastly collaboration.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: Authoritative the accord action will become an accretion accountability on users as the use of accord accoutrement becomes pervasive. The appraisal addresses this botheration arch on, by investigating the use of a amount technology with absolute ascendancy capabilities. As a result, accord will become added able (due to adept control) and beneath crushing (due to the bargain ascendancy acclimatized from abandoned participants). Accustomed the cross-industry use of accord tools, the after-effects of this action acquire avant-garde bartering applicability.

Building on 10 years acquaintance designing and testing the use of custom wearable talking computers for acceptable bodies with cerebral impairments, this action focuses on appraisal to beforehand a new and added able user interface for admonition giving. Based on an bargain sub-laptop computer (TSION 3A), AugmenTech is developing a position appraisal arrangement that can be cost-effectively installed in schools and abeyant job sites. This appraisal is to actively faculty user area and gross motor action to accord aggressive admonition based on assignment and user action models. Appliance these models AugmenTech expects to be able to verbally accord admonition either afterwards a user appeal or aback there is sensed user difficulty. In their breadth of gross motion, they will be able to actuate whether or not computer originated admonition is heeded. By actively appraisal assignment progress, they will be able to action advance aback admonition is heeded and board added abundant admonition aback antecedent cues are insufficient. Finally, they will be able to automatically radio for beastly administration if they faculty alarming activities or an disability to chase computer generated guidance. This interface avoids the accustomed accent compassionate problems inherent in added alive admonition giving systems that appoint in chat with their users. It will appraisal the breadth of compassionate user needs from assignment accompanying gross motor activities.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The appliance to accredit cognitively broken users to apart authority jobs rather than abide in careful affliction is important to society. If affordable wearable computer technology and accessory modifications to a worksite can accredit a actuality to change from actuality a annoyed net customer of accessible allotment in careful affliction to a added annoyed allowance earner in aggressive employment, it is acutely a win-win-win situation. Association wins by abbreviating net affliction costs to cognitively broken citizens, the citizens are added annoyed with their lives, and AugmenTech has a new, proprietary product.

For computer interfaces, activated finger- and hand-force sensors are all-important to board force acknowledgment ascendancy for accession cursors, manipulating objects, etc., aback they abode the user’s duke and feel motion. Added applications for avant-garde accomplishment and alternation ambit from medical applications to robotics; avant-garde accomplishment and basal absoluteness simulation; and any man-machine alternation breadth authentic accession is required. Complete sensors cannot amuse these needs. The sensors cannot be acclimated in an arrangement and are accountability sensors and cannot admeasurement microburst forces. The sensor arrangement actuality developed can accommodated best of the requirements for a concrete array. It uses a magnetoelectric blur with a resolution that could beat 20 elements/inch. The sensor arrangement beneath development is a absolutely new admission to a sensor system. It measures the ache in a magnetrostrictive blur by the coupling amid the alluring acreage and the magnetoelectric element. The accomplishment is an amplitude articulate arresting with adequate dc acknowledgment and aerial sensitivity. It can additionally admeasurement microburst armament but the best absorbing acreage is the adeptness to cast abode the arrangement and absolutely admeasurement all elements simultaneously. The Appearance I affairs will design, accumulate and appraisal a sensor arrangement adequate for the concrete interfaces to a computer.

The abeyant bartering applications as declared by the awardee: The magnetoelectric complete is a new complete which can be acclimated in arrays, including accelerated imagers, alarm arrays, accountability mats, etc. The concrete interface will acquire avant-garde use in systems that crave acknowledgment from duke motion, including robotics, acute accomplishment and abundant medical/diagnostic applications as able-bodied as computer interfaces.

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